Stomach Stapling Kids

Stomach Stapling Kids.jpeg

Weight loss surgery for children and adolescents is becoming widespread and is being performed in children as young as five years old. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most common type of procedure, in which surgeons cut out nearly the entire stomach, as you can see in my video, Stomach Stapling Kids. Bariatric surgery in pediatric patients does result in weight loss, but also has the potential for serious complications. These include pulmonary embolism, shock, intestinal obstruction, postoperative bleeding, leaking along the staple line, severe malnutrition, and even death at a rate of 0.5%. This means that 1 in 200 kids who go under the knife may die. Infection is identified as the leading cause of death and is most often associated with leaking of intestinal contents into the abdominal cavity.

Sometimes the surgery doesn't work, and you have to go in and do another procedure. If that doesn't work either, you can always try implanting electrodes into patients' brains, a "novel antiobesity strategy" reported in the Journal of Neurosurgery. The concept of deep brain stimulation "since its inception has been that placing an electrode somewhere in the brain could make people eat less." You drill two little holes in the patient's skull, snake in some electrodes a few inches, and then tunnel the wires under the scalp into a pulse generator implanted under the skin on the chest. You evidently can't crank it up past 5 volts because it induces anxiety and nausea. But even without the nausea, people with electrodes stuck in their brains lost an average of about 10 pounds a year.

The childhood obesity epidemic is so tragic. It pains me to see insult piled on injury. Too often, medical treatments can be worse than the disease. See my video, Why Prevention Is Worth a Ton of Cure.

Speaking of prevention, what might be the best diet for our young ones? See:

There are complications associated with gastric bypass in adults, too. See my video The Dangers of Broccoli?.

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: ReSurge International / Flickr. This image has been modified.

Original Link

Stomach Stapling Kids

Stomach Stapling Kids.jpeg

Weight loss surgery for children and adolescents is becoming widespread and is being performed in children as young as five years old. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most common type of procedure, in which surgeons cut out nearly the entire stomach, as you can see in my video, Stomach Stapling Kids. Bariatric surgery in pediatric patients does result in weight loss, but also has the potential for serious complications. These include pulmonary embolism, shock, intestinal obstruction, postoperative bleeding, leaking along the staple line, severe malnutrition, and even death at a rate of 0.5%. This means that 1 in 200 kids who go under the knife may die. Infection is identified as the leading cause of death and is most often associated with leaking of intestinal contents into the abdominal cavity.

Sometimes the surgery doesn't work, and you have to go in and do another procedure. If that doesn't work either, you can always try implanting electrodes into patients' brains, a "novel antiobesity strategy" reported in the Journal of Neurosurgery. The concept of deep brain stimulation "since its inception has been that placing an electrode somewhere in the brain could make people eat less." You drill two little holes in the patient's skull, snake in some electrodes a few inches, and then tunnel the wires under the scalp into a pulse generator implanted under the skin on the chest. You evidently can't crank it up past 5 volts because it induces anxiety and nausea. But even without the nausea, people with electrodes stuck in their brains lost an average of about 10 pounds a year.

The childhood obesity epidemic is so tragic. It pains me to see insult piled on injury. Too often, medical treatments can be worse than the disease. See my video, Why Prevention Is Worth a Ton of Cure.

Speaking of prevention, what might be the best diet for our young ones? See:

There are complications associated with gastric bypass in adults, too. See my video The Dangers of Broccoli?.

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: ReSurge International / Flickr. This image has been modified.

Original Link

Music as Medicine

Music as Medicine.jpeg

We've been playing music since the Paleolithic Era, 40,000 years ago. Music as therapy has been documented since at least biblical times. The first music therapy experiment was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 1914. As to why he placed a phonograph in the operating room as his patients lay fully conscious and awake during surgery, the surgeon explained it was "a means of calming and distracting my patients from the horror of the situation."

Now that we have anesthesia, music is used to calm nerves before surgery. Normally we use Valium-type drugs like midazolam (sold as Versed), but they can have a variety of side effects, including sometimes even making people more agitated. A study from Sweden sought to determine if relaxing music has a greater anxiety-reducing effect than a standard dose of midazolam. Researchers whipped out some Kenny G, and the music worked significantly better than the drug. Those listening to Mr. G had lower anxiety scores, heart rates, and blood pressures. This is perhaps the first report of any anti-anxiety therapy working not only as good as, but even better than, benzodiazepine drugs. The difference in side effects of relaxing music compared to the drug is obvious: There were none. Soft jazz causes no post-operative hangover. The researchers suggest we should start using music instead of midazolam.

Music may also reduce anxiety and pain in children undergoing minor medical and dental procedures, helping with blood draws and shots. It may even reduce the pain of spinal taps. However, Mozart is evidently powerless against the pain of circumcision.

It doesn't take a randomized controlled trial to demonstrate that listening to music can be relaxing. Tell me something I don't know. Well, if you take someone with a latex allergy and inject their skin with latex, they get a big, red, angry bump. But if you repeat the test after they've been listening to Mozart for 30 minutes, they develop a much smaller bump (as you can see in my video, Music as Medicine). That is, they have less of an allergic reaction. If you think that's wild, get ready for this: Beethoven didn't work. The subjects had the same reaction before and after listening to his music! Schubert, Hayden, and Brahms didn't work either, as all failed to reduce the allergic skin response. The reducing effect on allergic responses may be specific to Mozart.

So Mozart's looking pretty good, but what if he could be suppressing our immune systems in general? That would not be good. The same researchers also injected a chemical that causes reactions in everyone, not just in allergic people. Mozart had no effect. It seems Mozart suppresses only the pathological allergic reaction. If that isn't crazy enough for you, the researchers drew subjects' blood after the music, stuck their white blood cells in a petri dish with a little latex, and measured the allergic antibody response. The white blood cells from those exposed to Mozart had less of an allergic response even outside the body compared to cells taken from Beethoven blood. How cool is that?

Music may even impact our metabolism. This inquiry started with a 2012 study published in the journal Pediatrics, which found the resting energy expenditure (the number of calories burned when just lying around) was lower in preterm infants when researchers piped in Mozart. This may explain why infants exposed to music put on weight faster, so much so they are able to go home earlier.

Gaining weight faster is great for premature babies, but not necessarily for adults. Could listening to music slow our metabolism and contribute to weight gain? Well, one study found no effect on adults. But the researchers used Bach, not Mozart. Bach doesn't cause a drop in energy expenditure in babies either. These data suggest there may be "more a 'Mozart effect' than a universal 'music effect'."

What if we just listen to music of our choice? Does that affect our metabolism? We didn't know... until now. It turns out that listening to music appears to actually increase our metabolic rate, such that we burn an average of 27.6 more calories a day just lying in bed. That's only like six M&M's worth, though, so it's better to use music to get up and start dancing or exercising. Music can not only improve exercise enjoyment but also performance--a way to improve athletic performance that's legal.

Male bodybuilders may be less enthused music's effects. After listening to music for just 30 minutes, testosterone levels drop 14% in young men and go up 21% in young women. Do all kinds of music have this effect or just some types? Thirty minutes of silence had no effect on testosterone levels at all, while a half-hour of Mozart, jazz, pop, or Gregorian chants (no relation :) all suppressed testosterone. What about a half-hour of people's personal favorites? Testosterone levels were cut in half! Testosterone decreased in males under all music conditions, whereas testosterone increased in females. What is going on? Well, in men, testosterone is related to libido, dominance, and aggressiveness, whereas women get a bigger boost in testosterone from cuddling than from sex. So maybe we evolved using music as a way to ensure we all got along, like a melodious cold shower to keep everyone chill.

Is that crazy or what? I'm fascinated by the whole topic. For more, see Music for Anxiety: Mozart vs. Metal.

Sounds are the only sensory-stimulators that can have an effect on us--so can scents! See:

Exposure to industrial pollutants may also affect both allergic diseases and testosterone levels:

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: Sally Plank. This image has been modified.

Original Link

Music as Medicine

Music as Medicine.jpeg

We've been playing music since the Paleolithic Era, 40,000 years ago. Music as therapy has been documented since at least biblical times. The first music therapy experiment was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 1914. As to why he placed a phonograph in the operating room as his patients lay fully conscious and awake during surgery, the surgeon explained it was "a means of calming and distracting my patients from the horror of the situation."

Now that we have anesthesia, music is used to calm nerves before surgery. Normally we use Valium-type drugs like midazolam (sold as Versed), but they can have a variety of side effects, including sometimes even making people more agitated. A study from Sweden sought to determine if relaxing music has a greater anxiety-reducing effect than a standard dose of midazolam. Researchers whipped out some Kenny G, and the music worked significantly better than the drug. Those listening to Mr. G had lower anxiety scores, heart rates, and blood pressures. This is perhaps the first report of any anti-anxiety therapy working not only as good as, but even better than, benzodiazepine drugs. The difference in side effects of relaxing music compared to the drug is obvious: There were none. Soft jazz causes no post-operative hangover. The researchers suggest we should start using music instead of midazolam.

Music may also reduce anxiety and pain in children undergoing minor medical and dental procedures, helping with blood draws and shots. It may even reduce the pain of spinal taps. However, Mozart is evidently powerless against the pain of circumcision.

It doesn't take a randomized controlled trial to demonstrate that listening to music can be relaxing. Tell me something I don't know. Well, if you take someone with a latex allergy and inject their skin with latex, they get a big, red, angry bump. But if you repeat the test after they've been listening to Mozart for 30 minutes, they develop a much smaller bump (as you can see in my video, Music as Medicine). That is, they have less of an allergic reaction. If you think that's wild, get ready for this: Beethoven didn't work. The subjects had the same reaction before and after listening to his music! Schubert, Hayden, and Brahms didn't work either, as all failed to reduce the allergic skin response. The reducing effect on allergic responses may be specific to Mozart.

So Mozart's looking pretty good, but what if he could be suppressing our immune systems in general? That would not be good. The same researchers also injected a chemical that causes reactions in everyone, not just in allergic people. Mozart had no effect. It seems Mozart suppresses only the pathological allergic reaction. If that isn't crazy enough for you, the researchers drew subjects' blood after the music, stuck their white blood cells in a petri dish with a little latex, and measured the allergic antibody response. The white blood cells from those exposed to Mozart had less of an allergic response even outside the body compared to cells taken from Beethoven blood. How cool is that?

Music may even impact our metabolism. This inquiry started with a 2012 study published in the journal Pediatrics, which found the resting energy expenditure (the number of calories burned when just lying around) was lower in preterm infants when researchers piped in Mozart. This may explain why infants exposed to music put on weight faster, so much so they are able to go home earlier.

Gaining weight faster is great for premature babies, but not necessarily for adults. Could listening to music slow our metabolism and contribute to weight gain? Well, one study found no effect on adults. But the researchers used Bach, not Mozart. Bach doesn't cause a drop in energy expenditure in babies either. These data suggest there may be "more a 'Mozart effect' than a universal 'music effect'."

What if we just listen to music of our choice? Does that affect our metabolism? We didn't know... until now. It turns out that listening to music appears to actually increase our metabolic rate, such that we burn an average of 27.6 more calories a day just lying in bed. That's only like six M&M's worth, though, so it's better to use music to get up and start dancing or exercising. Music can not only improve exercise enjoyment but also performance--a way to improve athletic performance that's legal.

Male bodybuilders may be less enthused music's effects. After listening to music for just 30 minutes, testosterone levels drop 14% in young men and go up 21% in young women. Do all kinds of music have this effect or just some types? Thirty minutes of silence had no effect on testosterone levels at all, while a half-hour of Mozart, jazz, pop, or Gregorian chants (no relation :) all suppressed testosterone. What about a half-hour of people's personal favorites? Testosterone levels were cut in half! Testosterone decreased in males under all music conditions, whereas testosterone increased in females. What is going on? Well, in men, testosterone is related to libido, dominance, and aggressiveness, whereas women get a bigger boost in testosterone from cuddling than from sex. So maybe we evolved using music as a way to ensure we all got along, like a melodious cold shower to keep everyone chill.

Is that crazy or what? I'm fascinated by the whole topic. For more, see Music for Anxiety: Mozart vs. Metal.

Sounds are the only sensory-stimulators that can have an effect on us--so can scents! See:

Exposure to industrial pollutants may also affect both allergic diseases and testosterone levels:

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: Sally Plank. This image has been modified.

Original Link

Benefits of Oatmeal for Fatty Liver Disease

Benefits of Oatmeal for Fatty Liver Disease.jpeg

If oatmeal is so powerful that it can clear up some of the ravages of chemotherapy just applied to the skin (see my video Oatmeal Lotion for Chemotherapy-Induced Rash), what might it do if we actually ate it? Oats are reported to possess varied drug-like activities like lowering blood cholesterol and blood sugar, boosting our immune system, anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-atherosclerosis activites, in addition to being a topical anti-inflammatory, and reprtedly may also be useful in controlling childhood asthma and body weight.

Whole-grain intake in general is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and weight gain, as shown in my video Can Oatmeal Help Fatty Liver Disease?. All of the cohort studies on type 2 diabetes and heart disease show whole grain intake is associated with lower risk.

Researchers have observed the same for obesity--consistently less weight gain for those who consumed a few servings of whole grains every day. All the forward-looking population studies demonstrate that a higher intake of whole grains is associated with lower body mass index and body weight gain. However, these results do not clarify whether whole grain consumption is simply a marker of a healthier lifestyle or a factor favoring lower body weight.

For example, high whole grain consumers--those who eat whole wheat, brown rice, and oatmeal for breakfast--tend to be more physically active, smoke less, and consume more fruit, vegetables, and dietary fiber than those that instead reach for fruit loops. Statistically, one can control these factors, effectively comparing nonsmokers to nonsmokers with similar exercise and diet as most of the studies did, and they still found whole grains to be protective via a variety of mechanisms.

For example, in terms of helping with weight control, the soluble fiber of oatmeal forms a gel in the stomach, delaying stomach emptying, making one feel full for a longer period. It seems plausible that whole grain intake does indeed offer direct benefits, but only results of randomized controlled intervention studies can provide direct evidence of cause and effect. In other words, the evidence is clear that oatmeal consumers have lower rates of disease, but that's not the same as proving that if we start eating more oatmeal, our risk will drop. To know that, we need an interventional trial, ideally a blinded study where you give half the people oatmeal, and the other half fake placebo oatmeal that looks and tastes like oatmeal, to see if it actually works. And that's what we finally got--a double-blinded randomized trial of overweight and obese men and women. Almost 90% of the real oatmeal-treated subjects had reduced body weight, compared to no weight loss in the control group. They saw a slimmer waist on average, a 20 point drop in cholesterol, and an improvement in liver function.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, meaning a fatty liver caused by excess food rather than excess drink, is now the most common cause of liver disease in the United States, and can lead in rare cases to cirrhosis of the liver, cancer of the liver, and death. Theoretically, whole grains could help prevent and treat fatty liver disease, but this is the first time it had been put to the test. A follow-up study in 2014 confirmed these findings of a protective role of whole grains, but refined grains was associated with increased risk. So one would not expect to get such wonderful results from wonder bread.

How can you make your oatmeal even healthier? See Antioxidants in a Pinch.

Whole Grains May Work As Well As Drugs for hypertension, but refined grain intake may linked with high blood pressure and diseases like diabetes. But If White Rice is Linked to Diabetes, What About China?.

More on keeping the liver healthy in videos like:

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: Sally Plank / Flickr. This image has been modified.

Original Link

Benefits of Oatmeal for Fatty Liver Disease

Benefits of Oatmeal for Fatty Liver Disease.jpeg

If oatmeal is so powerful that it can clear up some of the ravages of chemotherapy just applied to the skin (see my video Oatmeal Lotion for Chemotherapy-Induced Rash), what might it do if we actually ate it? Oats are reported to possess varied drug-like activities like lowering blood cholesterol and blood sugar, boosting our immune system, anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-atherosclerosis activites, in addition to being a topical anti-inflammatory, and reprtedly may also be useful in controlling childhood asthma and body weight.

Whole-grain intake in general is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and weight gain, as shown in my video Can Oatmeal Help Fatty Liver Disease?. All of the cohort studies on type 2 diabetes and heart disease show whole grain intake is associated with lower risk.

Researchers have observed the same for obesity--consistently less weight gain for those who consumed a few servings of whole grains every day. All the forward-looking population studies demonstrate that a higher intake of whole grains is associated with lower body mass index and body weight gain. However, these results do not clarify whether whole grain consumption is simply a marker of a healthier lifestyle or a factor favoring lower body weight.

For example, high whole grain consumers--those who eat whole wheat, brown rice, and oatmeal for breakfast--tend to be more physically active, smoke less, and consume more fruit, vegetables, and dietary fiber than those that instead reach for fruit loops. Statistically, one can control these factors, effectively comparing nonsmokers to nonsmokers with similar exercise and diet as most of the studies did, and they still found whole grains to be protective via a variety of mechanisms.

For example, in terms of helping with weight control, the soluble fiber of oatmeal forms a gel in the stomach, delaying stomach emptying, making one feel full for a longer period. It seems plausible that whole grain intake does indeed offer direct benefits, but only results of randomized controlled intervention studies can provide direct evidence of cause and effect. In other words, the evidence is clear that oatmeal consumers have lower rates of disease, but that's not the same as proving that if we start eating more oatmeal, our risk will drop. To know that, we need an interventional trial, ideally a blinded study where you give half the people oatmeal, and the other half fake placebo oatmeal that looks and tastes like oatmeal, to see if it actually works. And that's what we finally got--a double-blinded randomized trial of overweight and obese men and women. Almost 90% of the real oatmeal-treated subjects had reduced body weight, compared to no weight loss in the control group. They saw a slimmer waist on average, a 20 point drop in cholesterol, and an improvement in liver function.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, meaning a fatty liver caused by excess food rather than excess drink, is now the most common cause of liver disease in the United States, and can lead in rare cases to cirrhosis of the liver, cancer of the liver, and death. Theoretically, whole grains could help prevent and treat fatty liver disease, but this is the first time it had been put to the test. A follow-up study in 2014 confirmed these findings of a protective role of whole grains, but refined grains was associated with increased risk. So one would not expect to get such wonderful results from wonder bread.

How can you make your oatmeal even healthier? See Antioxidants in a Pinch.

Whole Grains May Work As Well As Drugs for hypertension, but refined grain intake may linked with high blood pressure and diseases like diabetes. But If White Rice is Linked to Diabetes, What About China?.

More on keeping the liver healthy in videos like:

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: Sally Plank / Flickr. This image has been modified.

Original Link

Improving Employee Diets Could Save Companies Millions

Plant-Based Workplace Intervention.jpg

The food, alcohol, and tobacco industries have been blamed for "manufacturing epidemics" of chronic disease, but they're just trying to sell more product like everyone else. And so if that means distorting science, creating front groups, compromising scientists, blocking public health policies... they're just trying to protect their business.

It's not about customer satisfaction, but shareholder satisfaction. How else could we have tobacco companies, for example, "continuing to produce products that kill one in two of their most loyal customers?"

Civil society organizations concerned with public health have earned a reputation for being "anti-industry," but the issue is not industry, but that sector of industry whose products are harmful to public health. We like the broccoli industry. In fact, the corporate world might end up leading the lifestyle medicine revolution.

As shown in my video, Plant-Based Workplace Intervention, the annual cost attributable to obesity alone among full-time employees is estimated at 70 billion dollars, primarily because obese employees are not as productive on the job. Having healthy employees is good for the bottom-line. Every dollar spent on wellness programs may offer a $3 return on investment. And if you track the market performance of companies that strive to nurture a culture of health, they appear to outperform their competition.

That's why companies like GEICO are exploring workplace dietary interventions (see my video, Slimming the Gecko). The remarkable success at GEICO headquarters led to an expansion of the program at corporate offices across the country, with test sites from San Diego to Macon, Georgia. Given that previous workplace studies have found that workers who ate a lot of animal protein had nearly five times the odds of obesity, whereas those that ate mostly plant protein appeared protected, obese and diabetic employees were asked to follow a plant-based diet of whole grains, vegetables, beans, and fruit while avoiding meat, dairy, and eggs. Compliance wasn't great. Fewer than half really got their animal product consumption down, but there were definitely improvements such as significant reductions in saturated fat, an increase in protective nutrients, and even noted weight loss, lower blood cholesterol levers, and better blood sugar control in diabetics.

And this was with no calorie counting, no portion control, and no exercise component. The weight reduction appears to result from feeling fuller earlier, due to higher dietary fiber intake. The difference in weight loss could also be the result of an increase in the thermic effect of food, allowing a small extra edge for weight loss in the vegan group. Those eating plant-based diets tend to burn off more calories in heat.

Eating plants appears to boost metabolism. This may be due to increased insulin sensitivity in cells, allowing cells to metabolize carbohydrates more quickly rather than storing them as body fat. "As a result, vegan diets have been shown to increase postprandial calorie burn by about 16%, up to three hours after consuming a meal."

Imagine how much money companies that self-insure their employees could save! See, for example:

Find out more on some of the potential downsides of corporate influence in videos like

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: Ryan McGuire / Pixabay. This image has been modified.

Original Link

Improving Employee Diets Could Save Companies Millions

Plant-Based Workplace Intervention.jpg

The food, alcohol, and tobacco industries have been blamed for "manufacturing epidemics" of chronic disease, but they're just trying to sell more product like everyone else. And so if that means distorting science, creating front groups, compromising scientists, blocking public health policies... they're just trying to protect their business.

It's not about customer satisfaction, but shareholder satisfaction. How else could we have tobacco companies, for example, "continuing to produce products that kill one in two of their most loyal customers?"

Civil society organizations concerned with public health have earned a reputation for being "anti-industry," but the issue is not industry, but that sector of industry whose products are harmful to public health. We like the broccoli industry. In fact, the corporate world might end up leading the lifestyle medicine revolution.

As shown in my video, Plant-Based Workplace Intervention, the annual cost attributable to obesity alone among full-time employees is estimated at 70 billion dollars, primarily because obese employees are not as productive on the job. Having healthy employees is good for the bottom-line. Every dollar spent on wellness programs may offer a $3 return on investment. And if you track the market performance of companies that strive to nurture a culture of health, they appear to outperform their competition.

That's why companies like GEICO are exploring workplace dietary interventions (see my video, Slimming the Gecko). The remarkable success at GEICO headquarters led to an expansion of the program at corporate offices across the country, with test sites from San Diego to Macon, Georgia. Given that previous workplace studies have found that workers who ate a lot of animal protein had nearly five times the odds of obesity, whereas those that ate mostly plant protein appeared protected, obese and diabetic employees were asked to follow a plant-based diet of whole grains, vegetables, beans, and fruit while avoiding meat, dairy, and eggs. Compliance wasn't great. Fewer than half really got their animal product consumption down, but there were definitely improvements such as significant reductions in saturated fat, an increase in protective nutrients, and even noted weight loss, lower blood cholesterol levers, and better blood sugar control in diabetics.

And this was with no calorie counting, no portion control, and no exercise component. The weight reduction appears to result from feeling fuller earlier, due to higher dietary fiber intake. The difference in weight loss could also be the result of an increase in the thermic effect of food, allowing a small extra edge for weight loss in the vegan group. Those eating plant-based diets tend to burn off more calories in heat.

Eating plants appears to boost metabolism. This may be due to increased insulin sensitivity in cells, allowing cells to metabolize carbohydrates more quickly rather than storing them as body fat. "As a result, vegan diets have been shown to increase postprandial calorie burn by about 16%, up to three hours after consuming a meal."

Imagine how much money companies that self-insure their employees could save! See, for example:

Find out more on some of the potential downsides of corporate influence in videos like

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: Ryan McGuire / Pixabay. This image has been modified.

Original Link

Lipotoxicity: How Saturated Fat Raises Blood Sugar

NF-Nov24 Lipotoxicity How Saturated Fat Raises Blood Sugar copy.jpg

The reason those eating plant-based diets have less fat buildup in their muscle cells and less insulin resistance may be because saturated fats appear to impair blood sugar control the most.

The association between fat and insulin resistance is now widely accepted. Insulin resistance is due to so-called ectopic fat accumulation, the buildup of fat in places it's not supposed to be, like within our muscle cells. But not all fats affect the muscles the same. The type of fat, saturated vs. unsaturated, is critical. Saturated fats like palmitate, found mostly in meat, dairy and eggs, cause insulin resistance, but oleate, found mostly in nuts, olives and avocados may actually improve insulin sensitivity.

What makes saturated fat bad? Saturated fat causes more toxic breakdown products and mitochondrial dysfunction, and increases oxidative stress, free radicals and inflammation, establishing a vicious cycle of events in which saturated fat induces free radicals, causes dysfunction in the little power plants within our muscle cells (mitochondria), which then causes an increase in free radical production and an impairment of insulin signaling. I explain this in my video Lipotoxicity: How Saturated Fat Raises Blood Sugar.

Fat cells filled with saturated fat activate an inflammatory response to a far greater extent. This increased inflammation from saturated fat has been demonstrated to raise insulin resistance through free radical production. Saturated fat also has been shown to have a direct effect on skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Accumulation of saturated fat increases the amount of diacyl-glycerol in the muscles, which has been demonstrated to have a potent effect on muscle insulin resistance. You can take muscle biopsies from people and correlate the saturated fat buildup in their muscles with insulin resistance.

While monounsaturated fats are more likely to be detoxified or safely stored away, saturated fats create those toxic breakdown products like ceramide that causes lipotoxicity. Lipo- meaning fat, as in liposuction. This fat toxicity in our muscles is a well-known concept in the explanation of trigger for insulin resistance.

I've talked about the role saturated and trans fats contribute to the progression of other diseases, like autoimmune diseases, cancer and heart disease, but they can also cause insulin resistance, the underlying cause of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. In the human diet, saturated fats are derived from animal sources while trans fats originate in meat and milk in addition to partially hydrogenated and refined vegetable oils.

That's why experimentally shifting people from animal fats to plant fats can improve insulin sensitivity. In a study done by Swedish researchers, insulin sensitivity was impaired on the diet with added butterfat, but not on the diet with added olive fat.

We know prolonged exposure of our muscles to high levels of fat leads to severe insulin resistance, with saturated fats demonstrated to be the worst, but they don't just lead to inhibition of insulin signaling, the activation of inflammatory pathways and the increase in free radicals, they also cause an alteration in gene expression. This can lead to a suppression of key mitochondrial enzymes like carnitine palmitoyltransferase, which finally solves the mystery of why those eating vegetarian have a 60 percent higher expression of that fat burning enzyme. They're eating less saturated fat.

So do those eating plant-based diets have less fat clogging their muscles and less insulin resistance too? There hasn't been any data available regarding the insulin sensitivity or inside muscle cell fat of those eating vegan or vegetarian... until now. Researchers at the Imperial College of London compared the insulin resistance and muscle fat of vegans versus omnivores. Those eating plant-based diets have the unfair advantage of being much slimmer, so they found omnivores who were as skinny as vegans to see if plant-based diets had a direct benefit, as opposed to indirectly pulling fat out of the muscles by helping people lose weight in general.

They found significantly less fat trapped in the muscle cells of vegans compared to omnivores at the same body weight, better insulin sensitivity, better blood sugar levels, better insulin levels and, excitingly, significantly improved beta-cell function (the cells in the pancreas that make the insulin). They conclude that eating plant-based is not only expected to be cardioprotective, helping prevent our #1 killer, heart disease, but that plant-based diets are beta-cell protective as well, helping also to prevent our seventh leading cause of death, diabetes.

This is the third of a three-part series, starting with What Causes Insulin Resistance? and The Spillover Effect Links Obesity to Diabetes.

Even if saturated fat weren't associated with heart disease, its effects on pancreatic function and insulin resistance in the muscles would be enough to warrant avoiding it. Despite popular press accounts, saturated fat intake remains the primary modifiable determinant of LDL cholesterol, the #1 risk factor for our #1 killer-heart disease. See The Saturated Fat Studies: Buttering Up the Public and The Saturated Fat Studies: Set Up to Fail.

How low should we shoot for in terms of saturated fat intake? As low as possible, according to the U.S. National Academies of Science Institute of Medicine: Trans Fat, Saturated Fat, and Cholesterol: Tolerable Upper Intake of Zero.

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: Andrew Malone / Flickr

Original Link

Lipotoxicity: How Saturated Fat Raises Blood Sugar

NF-Nov24 Lipotoxicity How Saturated Fat Raises Blood Sugar copy.jpg

The reason those eating plant-based diets have less fat buildup in their muscle cells and less insulin resistance may be because saturated fats appear to impair blood sugar control the most.

The association between fat and insulin resistance is now widely accepted. Insulin resistance is due to so-called ectopic fat accumulation, the buildup of fat in places it's not supposed to be, like within our muscle cells. But not all fats affect the muscles the same. The type of fat, saturated vs. unsaturated, is critical. Saturated fats like palmitate, found mostly in meat, dairy and eggs, cause insulin resistance, but oleate, found mostly in nuts, olives and avocados may actually improve insulin sensitivity.

What makes saturated fat bad? Saturated fat causes more toxic breakdown products and mitochondrial dysfunction, and increases oxidative stress, free radicals and inflammation, establishing a vicious cycle of events in which saturated fat induces free radicals, causes dysfunction in the little power plants within our muscle cells (mitochondria), which then causes an increase in free radical production and an impairment of insulin signaling. I explain this in my video Lipotoxicity: How Saturated Fat Raises Blood Sugar.

Fat cells filled with saturated fat activate an inflammatory response to a far greater extent. This increased inflammation from saturated fat has been demonstrated to raise insulin resistance through free radical production. Saturated fat also has been shown to have a direct effect on skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Accumulation of saturated fat increases the amount of diacyl-glycerol in the muscles, which has been demonstrated to have a potent effect on muscle insulin resistance. You can take muscle biopsies from people and correlate the saturated fat buildup in their muscles with insulin resistance.

While monounsaturated fats are more likely to be detoxified or safely stored away, saturated fats create those toxic breakdown products like ceramide that causes lipotoxicity. Lipo- meaning fat, as in liposuction. This fat toxicity in our muscles is a well-known concept in the explanation of trigger for insulin resistance.

I've talked about the role saturated and trans fats contribute to the progression of other diseases, like autoimmune diseases, cancer and heart disease, but they can also cause insulin resistance, the underlying cause of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. In the human diet, saturated fats are derived from animal sources while trans fats originate in meat and milk in addition to partially hydrogenated and refined vegetable oils.

That's why experimentally shifting people from animal fats to plant fats can improve insulin sensitivity. In a study done by Swedish researchers, insulin sensitivity was impaired on the diet with added butterfat, but not on the diet with added olive fat.

We know prolonged exposure of our muscles to high levels of fat leads to severe insulin resistance, with saturated fats demonstrated to be the worst, but they don't just lead to inhibition of insulin signaling, the activation of inflammatory pathways and the increase in free radicals, they also cause an alteration in gene expression. This can lead to a suppression of key mitochondrial enzymes like carnitine palmitoyltransferase, which finally solves the mystery of why those eating vegetarian have a 60 percent higher expression of that fat burning enzyme. They're eating less saturated fat.

So do those eating plant-based diets have less fat clogging their muscles and less insulin resistance too? There hasn't been any data available regarding the insulin sensitivity or inside muscle cell fat of those eating vegan or vegetarian... until now. Researchers at the Imperial College of London compared the insulin resistance and muscle fat of vegans versus omnivores. Those eating plant-based diets have the unfair advantage of being much slimmer, so they found omnivores who were as skinny as vegans to see if plant-based diets had a direct benefit, as opposed to indirectly pulling fat out of the muscles by helping people lose weight in general.

They found significantly less fat trapped in the muscle cells of vegans compared to omnivores at the same body weight, better insulin sensitivity, better blood sugar levels, better insulin levels and, excitingly, significantly improved beta-cell function (the cells in the pancreas that make the insulin). They conclude that eating plant-based is not only expected to be cardioprotective, helping prevent our #1 killer, heart disease, but that plant-based diets are beta-cell protective as well, helping also to prevent our seventh leading cause of death, diabetes.

This is the third of a three-part series, starting with What Causes Insulin Resistance? and The Spillover Effect Links Obesity to Diabetes.

Even if saturated fat weren't associated with heart disease, its effects on pancreatic function and insulin resistance in the muscles would be enough to warrant avoiding it. Despite popular press accounts, saturated fat intake remains the primary modifiable determinant of LDL cholesterol, the #1 risk factor for our #1 killer-heart disease. See The Saturated Fat Studies: Buttering Up the Public and The Saturated Fat Studies: Set Up to Fail.

How low should we shoot for in terms of saturated fat intake? As low as possible, according to the U.S. National Academies of Science Institute of Medicine: Trans Fat, Saturated Fat, and Cholesterol: Tolerable Upper Intake of Zero.

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

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Image Credit: Andrew Malone / Flickr

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