What’s the Mediterranean Diet’s Secret?

Why Was Heart Disease Rare in the Mediterranean?.jpg

The Mediterranean Diet is an "in" topic nowadays in both the medical literature and the lay media. As one researcher put it, "Uncritical laudatory coverage is common, but specifics are hard to come by: What is it? Where did it come from? Why is it good? Merits are rarely detailed; possible downsides are never mentioned." So, let's dig in....

After World War II, the government of Greece asked the Rockefeller foundation to come in and assess the situation. Impressed by the low rates of heart disease in the region, nutrition scientist Ancel Keys--after which "K" rations were named--initiated his famous seven countries study. In this study, he found the rate of fatal heart disease on the Greek isle of Crete was 20 times lower than in the United States. They also had the lowest cancer rates and fewest deaths overall. What were they eating? Their diets were more than 90% plant-based, which may explain why coronary heart disease was such a rarity. A rarity, that is, except for a small class of rich people whose diet differed from that of the general population--they ate meat every day instead of every week or two.

So, the heart of the Mediterranean diet is mainly plant-based, and low in meat and dairy, which Keys considered the "major villains in the diet" because of their saturated fat content. Unfortunately, no one is really eating the traditional Mediterranean diet anymore, even in the Mediterranean. The prevalence of coronary heart disease skyrocketed by an order of magnitude within a few decades in Crete, blamed on the increased consumption of meat and cheese at the expense of plant foods.

Everyone is talking about the Mediterranean diet, but few do it properly. People think of pizza or spaghetti with meat sauce, but while "Italian restaurants brag about the healthy measuring in diet, they serve a travesty of it." If no one's really eating this way anymore, how do you study it?

Researchers came up with a variety of Mediterranean diet adherence scoring systems to see if people who are eating more Mediterranean-ish do better. You get maximum points the more plant foods you eat, and effectively you get points deducted by eating just a single serving of meat or dairy a day. So it's no surprise those that eat relatively higher on the scale have a lower risk of heart disease, cancer, and death overall. After all, the Mediterranean diet can be considered to be a "near vegetarian" diet. "As such, it should be expected to produce the well-established health benefits of vegetarian diets." That is, less heart disease, cancer, death, and inflammation; improved arterial function; a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes; a reduced risk for stroke, depression, and cognitive impairment.

How might it work? I've talked about the elegant studies showing that those who eat plant-based diets have more plant-based compounds, like aspirin, circulating within their systems. Polyphenol phytonutrients in plant foods are associated with a significantly lower risk of dying. Magnesium consumption is also associated with a significantly lower risk of dying, and is found in dark green leafy vegetables, as well as fruits, beans, nuts, soy, and whole grains.

Heme iron, on the other hand--the iron found in blood and muscle--acts as a pro-oxidant and appears to increase the risk of diabetes, whereas plant-based, non-heme iron appears safe. Similarly, with heart disease, animal-based iron was found to significantly increase the risk of coronary heart disease, our number one killer, but not plant-based iron. The Mediterranean diet is protective compared to the Standard American Diet--no question--but any diet rich in whole plant foods and low in animal-fat consumption could be expected to confer protection against many of our leading killers.

Here are some more videos on the Mediterranean Diet:

For more information on heme iron, see Risk Associated With Iron Supplements.

More on magnesium is found in How Do Nuts Prevent Sudden Cardiac Death? and Mineral of the Year--Magnesium.

And more on polyphenols can be seen in videos like How to Slow Brain Aging by Two Years and Juicing Removes More Than Just Fiber.

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: Couleur / Pixabay. This image has been modified.

Original Link

What’s the Mediterranean Diet’s Secret?

Why Was Heart Disease Rare in the Mediterranean?.jpg

The Mediterranean Diet is an "in" topic nowadays in both the medical literature and the lay media. As one researcher put it, "Uncritical laudatory coverage is common, but specifics are hard to come by: What is it? Where did it come from? Why is it good? Merits are rarely detailed; possible downsides are never mentioned." So, let's dig in....

After World War II, the government of Greece asked the Rockefeller foundation to come in and assess the situation. Impressed by the low rates of heart disease in the region, nutrition scientist Ancel Keys--after which "K" rations were named--initiated his famous seven countries study. In this study, he found the rate of fatal heart disease on the Greek isle of Crete was 20 times lower than in the United States. They also had the lowest cancer rates and fewest deaths overall. What were they eating? Their diets were more than 90% plant-based, which may explain why coronary heart disease was such a rarity. A rarity, that is, except for a small class of rich people whose diet differed from that of the general population--they ate meat every day instead of every week or two.

So, the heart of the Mediterranean diet is mainly plant-based, and low in meat and dairy, which Keys considered the "major villains in the diet" because of their saturated fat content. Unfortunately, no one is really eating the traditional Mediterranean diet anymore, even in the Mediterranean. The prevalence of coronary heart disease skyrocketed by an order of magnitude within a few decades in Crete, blamed on the increased consumption of meat and cheese at the expense of plant foods.

Everyone is talking about the Mediterranean diet, but few do it properly. People think of pizza or spaghetti with meat sauce, but while "Italian restaurants brag about the healthy measuring in diet, they serve a travesty of it." If no one's really eating this way anymore, how do you study it?

Researchers came up with a variety of Mediterranean diet adherence scoring systems to see if people who are eating more Mediterranean-ish do better. You get maximum points the more plant foods you eat, and effectively you get points deducted by eating just a single serving of meat or dairy a day. So it's no surprise those that eat relatively higher on the scale have a lower risk of heart disease, cancer, and death overall. After all, the Mediterranean diet can be considered to be a "near vegetarian" diet. "As such, it should be expected to produce the well-established health benefits of vegetarian diets." That is, less heart disease, cancer, death, and inflammation; improved arterial function; a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes; a reduced risk for stroke, depression, and cognitive impairment.

How might it work? I've talked about the elegant studies showing that those who eat plant-based diets have more plant-based compounds, like aspirin, circulating within their systems. Polyphenol phytonutrients in plant foods are associated with a significantly lower risk of dying. Magnesium consumption is also associated with a significantly lower risk of dying, and is found in dark green leafy vegetables, as well as fruits, beans, nuts, soy, and whole grains.

Heme iron, on the other hand--the iron found in blood and muscle--acts as a pro-oxidant and appears to increase the risk of diabetes, whereas plant-based, non-heme iron appears safe. Similarly, with heart disease, animal-based iron was found to significantly increase the risk of coronary heart disease, our number one killer, but not plant-based iron. The Mediterranean diet is protective compared to the Standard American Diet--no question--but any diet rich in whole plant foods and low in animal-fat consumption could be expected to confer protection against many of our leading killers.

Here are some more videos on the Mediterranean Diet:

For more information on heme iron, see Risk Associated With Iron Supplements.

More on magnesium is found in How Do Nuts Prevent Sudden Cardiac Death? and Mineral of the Year--Magnesium.

And more on polyphenols can be seen in videos like How to Slow Brain Aging by Two Years and Juicing Removes More Than Just Fiber.

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: Couleur / Pixabay. This image has been modified.

Original Link

Striving for Alkaline Pee and Acidic Poo

Stool pH and Colon Cancer.jpg

More than 30 years ago, an idea was put forward that high colonic pH promoted colorectal cancer. A high colonic pH may promote the creation of carcinogens from bile acids, a process that is inhibited once you get below a pH of about 6.5. This is supported by data which shows those at higher risk for colon cancer may have a higher stool pH, and those at lower risk have a low pH. There was a dramatic difference between the two groups, with most of the high risk group over pH 8, and most of the low risk group under pH 6 (see Stool pH and Colon Cancer).

This may help explain the 50-fold lower rates of colon cancer in Africa compared to America. The bacteria we have in our gut depends on what we eat. If we eat lots of fiber, then we preferentially feed the fiber eating bacteria, which give us back all sorts of health promoting substances like short-chain fatty acids that have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. More of these organic acids were found in the stools of native Africans than African Americans. More acids, so lower pH. Whereas putrefactive bacteria, eating animal protein, are able to increase stool pH by producing alkaline metabolites like ammonia.

The pH of the stools of white versus black children in Africa was compared. Children were chosen because you can more readily sample their stools, particularly the rural black schoolchildren who were eating such high fiber diets--whole grains, legumes, nuts, vegetables, fruits, and wild greens--that 90% of them could produce a stool on demand. Stuffed from head to tail with plants, they could give you a stool sample at any time, just as easy as getting a urine sample. It was hard to even get access to the white kids, though, who were reluctant to participate in such investigations, even though they were given waxed cartons fitted with lids while all the black kids got was a plate and a square of paper towel.

The researchers found significantly lower fecal pH in those eating the traditional, rural plant-based diets compared to those eating the traditional Western diet, who were eating far fewer whole plant foods than the black children. But, remove some of those whole plant foods, like switch their corn for white bread for just a few days and their stool pH goes up, and add whole plant foods like an extra five to seven servings of fruit every day, and their stool pH goes down even further and gets more acidic. It makes sense because when you ferment fruits, veggies, and grains, they turn sour, like vinegar, sauerkraut, or sourdough, because good bacteria like lactobacillus produce organic acids like lactic acid. Those who eat a lot of plants have more of those good bugs. So, using the purple cabbage test highlighted in my video, Testing Your Diet with Pee & Purple Cabbage, we want blue pee, but pink poo.

If you compare the fecal samples of those eating vegetarian or vegan to those eating standard diets, plant-based diets appear to shift the makeup of the bacteria in our gut, resulting in a significantly lower stool pH, and the more plant-based, the lower the pH dropped. It's like a positive feedback loop: fiber-eating bacteria produce the acids to create the pH at which fiber-eating bacteria thrive while suppressing the group of less beneficial bugs.

It might taken even as little as two weeks to bring stool pH down on a plant-based diet. In a study published in the British Journal of Cancer, a dozen volunteers carefully selected for their trustworthiness and randomized to sequentially go on regular, vegetarian, or vegan diets and two weeks in, a significant drop in fecal pH was achieved eating completely plant-based.

But there are differing qualities of plant-based diets. For example, the two groups followed in the study I mentioned earlier had dramatically different stool pH, yet both groups were vegetarian. The high risk group was eating mostly refined grains, very little fiber, whereas the low risk group was eating whole grains and beans, packed with fiber for our fiber-friendly flora to munch on.

Just as a "reduction of high serum cholesterol contributes to the avoidance of coronary heart disease," a fall in the fecal pH value may contribute to the avoidance of bowel cancer and through the same means, eating more whole plant foods.

More on colon cancer prevention in:

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: Kitti Sukhonthanit © 123RF.com. This image has been modified.

Original Link

Striving for Alkaline Pee and Acidic Poo

Stool pH and Colon Cancer.jpg

More than 30 years ago, an idea was put forward that high colonic pH promoted colorectal cancer. A high colonic pH may promote the creation of carcinogens from bile acids, a process that is inhibited once you get below a pH of about 6.5. This is supported by data which shows those at higher risk for colon cancer may have a higher stool pH, and those at lower risk have a low pH. There was a dramatic difference between the two groups, with most of the high risk group over pH 8, and most of the low risk group under pH 6 (see Stool pH and Colon Cancer).

This may help explain the 50-fold lower rates of colon cancer in Africa compared to America. The bacteria we have in our gut depends on what we eat. If we eat lots of fiber, then we preferentially feed the fiber eating bacteria, which give us back all sorts of health promoting substances like short-chain fatty acids that have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. More of these organic acids were found in the stools of native Africans than African Americans. More acids, so lower pH. Whereas putrefactive bacteria, eating animal protein, are able to increase stool pH by producing alkaline metabolites like ammonia.

The pH of the stools of white versus black children in Africa was compared. Children were chosen because you can more readily sample their stools, particularly the rural black schoolchildren who were eating such high fiber diets--whole grains, legumes, nuts, vegetables, fruits, and wild greens--that 90% of them could produce a stool on demand. Stuffed from head to tail with plants, they could give you a stool sample at any time, just as easy as getting a urine sample. It was hard to even get access to the white kids, though, who were reluctant to participate in such investigations, even though they were given waxed cartons fitted with lids while all the black kids got was a plate and a square of paper towel.

The researchers found significantly lower fecal pH in those eating the traditional, rural plant-based diets compared to those eating the traditional Western diet, who were eating far fewer whole plant foods than the black children. But, remove some of those whole plant foods, like switch their corn for white bread for just a few days and their stool pH goes up, and add whole plant foods like an extra five to seven servings of fruit every day, and their stool pH goes down even further and gets more acidic. It makes sense because when you ferment fruits, veggies, and grains, they turn sour, like vinegar, sauerkraut, or sourdough, because good bacteria like lactobacillus produce organic acids like lactic acid. Those who eat a lot of plants have more of those good bugs. So, using the purple cabbage test highlighted in my video, Testing Your Diet with Pee & Purple Cabbage, we want blue pee, but pink poo.

If you compare the fecal samples of those eating vegetarian or vegan to those eating standard diets, plant-based diets appear to shift the makeup of the bacteria in our gut, resulting in a significantly lower stool pH, and the more plant-based, the lower the pH dropped. It's like a positive feedback loop: fiber-eating bacteria produce the acids to create the pH at which fiber-eating bacteria thrive while suppressing the group of less beneficial bugs.

It might taken even as little as two weeks to bring stool pH down on a plant-based diet. In a study published in the British Journal of Cancer, a dozen volunteers carefully selected for their trustworthiness and randomized to sequentially go on regular, vegetarian, or vegan diets and two weeks in, a significant drop in fecal pH was achieved eating completely plant-based.

But there are differing qualities of plant-based diets. For example, the two groups followed in the study I mentioned earlier had dramatically different stool pH, yet both groups were vegetarian. The high risk group was eating mostly refined grains, very little fiber, whereas the low risk group was eating whole grains and beans, packed with fiber for our fiber-friendly flora to munch on.

Just as a "reduction of high serum cholesterol contributes to the avoidance of coronary heart disease," a fall in the fecal pH value may contribute to the avoidance of bowel cancer and through the same means, eating more whole plant foods.

More on colon cancer prevention in:

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: Kitti Sukhonthanit © 123RF.com. This image has been modified.

Original Link

How to Prevent Ulcerative Colitis with Diet

Preventing Ulcerative Colitis with Diet.jpg

What has driven the dramatic increase in prevalence of the inflammatory bowel disease Crohn's disease in societies that rapidly westernized--a disease practically unknown just a century ago? What has changed in our internal and external environment that has led to the appearance of this horrible disease?

Japan suffered one of the most dramatic increases, and out of all the changing dietary components, animal protein appeared to be the strongest factor. There was an exponential increase in newly diagnosed Crohn's patients and daily animal protein intake, whereas the greater the vegetable protein, the fewer the cases of Crohn's, which is consistent with data showing a more plant-based diet may be successful in both preventing and treating Crohn's disease (See Preventing Crohn's Disease With Diet and Dietary Treatment of Crohn's Disease). But what about other inflammatory bowel diseases?

In the largest study of its kind, shown in my video Preventing Ulcerative Colitis with Diet, 60,000 people were followed for more than a decade. Researchers found that high total protein intake--specifically animal protein--was associated with a significantly increased risk of the other big inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis. It wasn't just protein in general, but the "association between high protein intake and inflammatory bowel disease risk was restricted to animal protein."Since World War II, animal protein intake has increased not only in Japan but also in all developed countries. This increase in animal protein consumption is thought to explain some of the increased incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in the second half of the 20th century.

Other studies found this as well, but why? What's the difference between animal protein and plant protein? Animal proteins tend to have more sulfur containing amino acids like methionine, which bacteria in our gut can turn into the toxic rotten egg smell gas, hydrogen sulfide. Emerging evidence suggests that sulfur compounds may play a role in the development of ulcerative colitis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon and rectum characterized by bloody diarrhea.

The first hint as to the importance of our gut flora was in the 1970's when "analysis of stools showed that their bulk was made up of mostly bacteria, not undigested material." We're pushing out trillions of bacteria a day and they just keep multiplying and multiplying. They do wonderful things for us like create the protective compound, butyrate, from the fiber we eat, but unfortunately, the bacteria may also elaborate toxic products from food residues such as hydrogen sulfide "in response to a high-meat diet."

Hydrogen sulfide is a bacterially derived cell poison that has been implicated in ulcerative colitis. We had always assumed that sulfide generation in the colon is driven by dietary components such as sulfur-containing amino acids, but we didn't know for sure until a study from Cambridge was published. Researchers had folks eat five different diets each with escalating meat contents from vegetarian all the way up to a steak each day. They found that the more meat one ate, the more sulfide; ten times more meat meant ten times more sulfide. They concluded that "dietary protein from meat is an important substrate for sulfide generation by bacteria in the human large intestine."

Hydrogen sulfide can then act as a free radical and damage our DNA at concentrations way below what our poor colon lining is exposed to on a routine basis, which may help explain why diets higher in meat and lower in fiber may produce so-called "fecal water" that causes about twice as much DNA damage. Fecal water is like when researchers make a tea from someone's stool.

The biology of sulfur in the human gut has escaped serious attention until recently. Previously it was just thought of as the rotten egg smell in malodorous gas, but the increase in sulfur compounds in response to a supplement of animal protein is not only of interest in the field of flatology--that is, the formal study of farts--but may also be of importance in the development of ulcerative colitis.

I have several videos on our microbiome, including:

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: illustrator © 123RF.com. This image has been modified.

Original Link

How to Prevent Ulcerative Colitis with Diet

Preventing Ulcerative Colitis with Diet.jpg

What has driven the dramatic increase in prevalence of the inflammatory bowel disease Crohn's disease in societies that rapidly westernized--a disease practically unknown just a century ago? What has changed in our internal and external environment that has led to the appearance of this horrible disease?

Japan suffered one of the most dramatic increases, and out of all the changing dietary components, animal protein appeared to be the strongest factor. There was an exponential increase in newly diagnosed Crohn's patients and daily animal protein intake, whereas the greater the vegetable protein, the fewer the cases of Crohn's, which is consistent with data showing a more plant-based diet may be successful in both preventing and treating Crohn's disease (See Preventing Crohn's Disease With Diet and Dietary Treatment of Crohn's Disease). But what about other inflammatory bowel diseases?

In the largest study of its kind, shown in my video Preventing Ulcerative Colitis with Diet, 60,000 people were followed for more than a decade. Researchers found that high total protein intake--specifically animal protein--was associated with a significantly increased risk of the other big inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis. It wasn't just protein in general, but the "association between high protein intake and inflammatory bowel disease risk was restricted to animal protein."Since World War II, animal protein intake has increased not only in Japan but also in all developed countries. This increase in animal protein consumption is thought to explain some of the increased incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in the second half of the 20th century.

Other studies found this as well, but why? What's the difference between animal protein and plant protein? Animal proteins tend to have more sulfur containing amino acids like methionine, which bacteria in our gut can turn into the toxic rotten egg smell gas, hydrogen sulfide. Emerging evidence suggests that sulfur compounds may play a role in the development of ulcerative colitis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon and rectum characterized by bloody diarrhea.

The first hint as to the importance of our gut flora was in the 1970's when "analysis of stools showed that their bulk was made up of mostly bacteria, not undigested material." We're pushing out trillions of bacteria a day and they just keep multiplying and multiplying. They do wonderful things for us like create the protective compound, butyrate, from the fiber we eat, but unfortunately, the bacteria may also elaborate toxic products from food residues such as hydrogen sulfide "in response to a high-meat diet."

Hydrogen sulfide is a bacterially derived cell poison that has been implicated in ulcerative colitis. We had always assumed that sulfide generation in the colon is driven by dietary components such as sulfur-containing amino acids, but we didn't know for sure until a study from Cambridge was published. Researchers had folks eat five different diets each with escalating meat contents from vegetarian all the way up to a steak each day. They found that the more meat one ate, the more sulfide; ten times more meat meant ten times more sulfide. They concluded that "dietary protein from meat is an important substrate for sulfide generation by bacteria in the human large intestine."

Hydrogen sulfide can then act as a free radical and damage our DNA at concentrations way below what our poor colon lining is exposed to on a routine basis, which may help explain why diets higher in meat and lower in fiber may produce so-called "fecal water" that causes about twice as much DNA damage. Fecal water is like when researchers make a tea from someone's stool.

The biology of sulfur in the human gut has escaped serious attention until recently. Previously it was just thought of as the rotten egg smell in malodorous gas, but the increase in sulfur compounds in response to a supplement of animal protein is not only of interest in the field of flatology--that is, the formal study of farts--but may also be of importance in the development of ulcerative colitis.

I have several videos on our microbiome, including:

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: illustrator © 123RF.com. This image has been modified.

Original Link

Reducing Glycotoxin Intake to Help Reduce Brain Loss

Reducing Glycotoxin Intake to Prevent Alzheimer's.jpg

Each of us has about six billion miles of DNA. How does our body keep it from getting all tangled up? There are special proteins called histones, which act like spools with DNA as the thread. Enzymes called sirtuins wrap the DNA around the histones and by doing so, silence whatever genes were in that stretch of DNA, hence their name SIRtuins, which stands for silencing information regulator.

Although they were discovered only about a decade ago, the study of sirtuins "has become one of the most promising areas of biomedicine," since they appear to be involved in promoting healthy aging and longevity. Suppression of this key host defense is considered a central feature of Alzheimer's disease, as shown in Reducing Glycotoxin Intake to Prevent Alzheimer's.

Autopsies of Alzheimer's victims reveal that loss of sirtuin activity is closely associated with the accumulation of the plaques and tangles in the brain that are characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. Sirtuin appears to activate pathways that steer the brain away from the formation of plaque and tangle proteins. "Because a decrease in sirtuin activity can clearly have deleterious effects" on nerve health, researchers are trying to come up with drugs to increase sirtuin activity, but why not just prevent its suppression in the first place?

Glycotoxins in our food suppress sirtuin activity, also known as advanced glycation end products, or AGE's. Our modern diet includes excessive AGE's, which can be neurotoxic. High levels in the blood may predict cognitive decline over time. If you measure the urine levels of glycotoxins flowing through the bodies of older adults, those with the highest levels went on to suffer the greatest cognitive decline over the subsequent nine years.

As we age, our brain literally shrinks. In our 60's and 70's, we lose an average of five cubic centimeters of total brain tissue volume every year, but some people lose more than others. Brain atrophy may be reduced in very healthy individuals, and a few people don't lose any brain at all. Normally we lose about 2% of brain volume every year, but that's just the average. Although the average brain loss for folks in their 70's and 80's was 2.1%, some lost more, some lost less, and some men and women lost none at all over a period of four years.

Researchers in Australia provided the first evidence linking AGEs with this kind of cerebral brain loss. So, limiting one's consumption of these compounds may end up having significant public health benefits. Because sirtuin deficiency is both preventable and reversible by dietary AGE reduction, a therapeutic strategy that includes eating less AGE's may offer a new strategy to combat the epidemic of Alzheimer's.

Some glycotoxins are produced internally, particularly in diabetics, but anyone can get them from smoking and eating, particularly foods high in fat and protein cooked at high temperatures. In my video, Avoiding a Sugary Grave, I listed the 15 foods most contaminated with glycotoxins; mostly chicken, but also pork, beef, and fish, which may help explain why those that eat the most meat may have triple the risk of getting dementia compared to long-time vegetarians. Note there are some relatively high fat and protein plant foods such as nuts and soy products, so I no longer recommend toasting nuts and would steer clear from roasted tofu.

I've covered advanced glycation end-products in Glycotoxins, Bacon, Eggs, and Gestational Diabetes During Pregnancy, and Why is Meat a Risk Factor for Diabetes?.

More on slowing brain aging in How to Slow Brain Aging By Two Years.

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: lightwise © 123RF.com. This image has been modified.

Original Link

Reducing Glycotoxin Intake to Help Reduce Brain Loss

Reducing Glycotoxin Intake to Prevent Alzheimer's.jpg

Each of us has about six billion miles of DNA. How does our body keep it from getting all tangled up? There are special proteins called histones, which act like spools with DNA as the thread. Enzymes called sirtuins wrap the DNA around the histones and by doing so, silence whatever genes were in that stretch of DNA, hence their name SIRtuins, which stands for silencing information regulator.

Although they were discovered only about a decade ago, the study of sirtuins "has become one of the most promising areas of biomedicine," since they appear to be involved in promoting healthy aging and longevity. Suppression of this key host defense is considered a central feature of Alzheimer's disease, as shown in Reducing Glycotoxin Intake to Prevent Alzheimer's.

Autopsies of Alzheimer's victims reveal that loss of sirtuin activity is closely associated with the accumulation of the plaques and tangles in the brain that are characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. Sirtuin appears to activate pathways that steer the brain away from the formation of plaque and tangle proteins. "Because a decrease in sirtuin activity can clearly have deleterious effects" on nerve health, researchers are trying to come up with drugs to increase sirtuin activity, but why not just prevent its suppression in the first place?

Glycotoxins in our food suppress sirtuin activity, also known as advanced glycation end products, or AGE's. Our modern diet includes excessive AGE's, which can be neurotoxic. High levels in the blood may predict cognitive decline over time. If you measure the urine levels of glycotoxins flowing through the bodies of older adults, those with the highest levels went on to suffer the greatest cognitive decline over the subsequent nine years.

As we age, our brain literally shrinks. In our 60's and 70's, we lose an average of five cubic centimeters of total brain tissue volume every year, but some people lose more than others. Brain atrophy may be reduced in very healthy individuals, and a few people don't lose any brain at all. Normally we lose about 2% of brain volume every year, but that's just the average. Although the average brain loss for folks in their 70's and 80's was 2.1%, some lost more, some lost less, and some men and women lost none at all over a period of four years.

Researchers in Australia provided the first evidence linking AGEs with this kind of cerebral brain loss. So, limiting one's consumption of these compounds may end up having significant public health benefits. Because sirtuin deficiency is both preventable and reversible by dietary AGE reduction, a therapeutic strategy that includes eating less AGE's may offer a new strategy to combat the epidemic of Alzheimer's.

Some glycotoxins are produced internally, particularly in diabetics, but anyone can get them from smoking and eating, particularly foods high in fat and protein cooked at high temperatures. In my video, Avoiding a Sugary Grave, I listed the 15 foods most contaminated with glycotoxins; mostly chicken, but also pork, beef, and fish, which may help explain why those that eat the most meat may have triple the risk of getting dementia compared to long-time vegetarians. Note there are some relatively high fat and protein plant foods such as nuts and soy products, so I no longer recommend toasting nuts and would steer clear from roasted tofu.

I've covered advanced glycation end-products in Glycotoxins, Bacon, Eggs, and Gestational Diabetes During Pregnancy, and Why is Meat a Risk Factor for Diabetes?.

More on slowing brain aging in How to Slow Brain Aging By Two Years.

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: lightwise © 123RF.com. This image has been modified.

Original Link

Improving Employee Diets Could Save Companies Millions

Plant-Based Workplace Intervention.jpg

The food, alcohol, and tobacco industries have been blamed for "manufacturing epidemics" of chronic disease, but they're just trying to sell more product like everyone else. And so if that means distorting science, creating front groups, compromising scientists, blocking public health policies... they're just trying to protect their business.

It's not about customer satisfaction, but shareholder satisfaction. How else could we have tobacco companies, for example, "continuing to produce products that kill one in two of their most loyal customers?"

Civil society organizations concerned with public health have earned a reputation for being "anti-industry," but the issue is not industry, but that sector of industry whose products are harmful to public health. We like the broccoli industry. In fact, the corporate world might end up leading the lifestyle medicine revolution.

As shown in my video, Plant-Based Workplace Intervention, the annual cost attributable to obesity alone among full-time employees is estimated at 70 billion dollars, primarily because obese employees are not as productive on the job. Having healthy employees is good for the bottom-line. Every dollar spent on wellness programs may offer a $3 return on investment. And if you track the market performance of companies that strive to nurture a culture of health, they appear to outperform their competition.

That's why companies like GEICO are exploring workplace dietary interventions (see my video, Slimming the Gecko). The remarkable success at GEICO headquarters led to an expansion of the program at corporate offices across the country, with test sites from San Diego to Macon, Georgia. Given that previous workplace studies have found that workers who ate a lot of animal protein had nearly five times the odds of obesity, whereas those that ate mostly plant protein appeared protected, obese and diabetic employees were asked to follow a plant-based diet of whole grains, vegetables, beans, and fruit while avoiding meat, dairy, and eggs. Compliance wasn't great. Fewer than half really got their animal product consumption down, but there were definitely improvements such as significant reductions in saturated fat, an increase in protective nutrients, and even noted weight loss, lower blood cholesterol levers, and better blood sugar control in diabetics.

And this was with no calorie counting, no portion control, and no exercise component. The weight reduction appears to result from feeling fuller earlier, due to higher dietary fiber intake. The difference in weight loss could also be the result of an increase in the thermic effect of food, allowing a small extra edge for weight loss in the vegan group. Those eating plant-based diets tend to burn off more calories in heat.

Eating plants appears to boost metabolism. This may be due to increased insulin sensitivity in cells, allowing cells to metabolize carbohydrates more quickly rather than storing them as body fat. "As a result, vegan diets have been shown to increase postprandial calorie burn by about 16%, up to three hours after consuming a meal."

Imagine how much money companies that self-insure their employees could save! See, for example:

Find out more on some of the potential downsides of corporate influence in videos like

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: Ryan McGuire / Pixabay. This image has been modified.

Original Link

Improving Employee Diets Could Save Companies Millions

Plant-Based Workplace Intervention.jpg

The food, alcohol, and tobacco industries have been blamed for "manufacturing epidemics" of chronic disease, but they're just trying to sell more product like everyone else. And so if that means distorting science, creating front groups, compromising scientists, blocking public health policies... they're just trying to protect their business.

It's not about customer satisfaction, but shareholder satisfaction. How else could we have tobacco companies, for example, "continuing to produce products that kill one in two of their most loyal customers?"

Civil society organizations concerned with public health have earned a reputation for being "anti-industry," but the issue is not industry, but that sector of industry whose products are harmful to public health. We like the broccoli industry. In fact, the corporate world might end up leading the lifestyle medicine revolution.

As shown in my video, Plant-Based Workplace Intervention, the annual cost attributable to obesity alone among full-time employees is estimated at 70 billion dollars, primarily because obese employees are not as productive on the job. Having healthy employees is good for the bottom-line. Every dollar spent on wellness programs may offer a $3 return on investment. And if you track the market performance of companies that strive to nurture a culture of health, they appear to outperform their competition.

That's why companies like GEICO are exploring workplace dietary interventions (see my video, Slimming the Gecko). The remarkable success at GEICO headquarters led to an expansion of the program at corporate offices across the country, with test sites from San Diego to Macon, Georgia. Given that previous workplace studies have found that workers who ate a lot of animal protein had nearly five times the odds of obesity, whereas those that ate mostly plant protein appeared protected, obese and diabetic employees were asked to follow a plant-based diet of whole grains, vegetables, beans, and fruit while avoiding meat, dairy, and eggs. Compliance wasn't great. Fewer than half really got their animal product consumption down, but there were definitely improvements such as significant reductions in saturated fat, an increase in protective nutrients, and even noted weight loss, lower blood cholesterol levers, and better blood sugar control in diabetics.

And this was with no calorie counting, no portion control, and no exercise component. The weight reduction appears to result from feeling fuller earlier, due to higher dietary fiber intake. The difference in weight loss could also be the result of an increase in the thermic effect of food, allowing a small extra edge for weight loss in the vegan group. Those eating plant-based diets tend to burn off more calories in heat.

Eating plants appears to boost metabolism. This may be due to increased insulin sensitivity in cells, allowing cells to metabolize carbohydrates more quickly rather than storing them as body fat. "As a result, vegan diets have been shown to increase postprandial calorie burn by about 16%, up to three hours after consuming a meal."

Imagine how much money companies that self-insure their employees could save! See, for example:

Find out more on some of the potential downsides of corporate influence in videos like

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: Ryan McGuire / Pixabay. This image has been modified.

Original Link