Best Food for MGUS to Prevent Multiple Myeloma

Best Food for MGUS to Prevent Multiple Myeloma.jpeg

Multiple myeloma is one of our most dreaded cancers. It's a cancer of our antibody-producing plasma cells, and is considered one of our most intractable blood diseases. The precursor disease is called monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). When it was named, it's significance was undetermined, but now we know that multiple myeloma is almost always preceded by MGUS. This makes MGUS one of the most common premalignant disorders, with a prevalence of about 3% in the older white general population, and about 2 to 3 times that in African-American populations.

MGUS itself is asymptomatic, you don't even know you have it until your doctor finds it incidentally doing routine bloodwork. But should it progress to multiple myeloma, you only have about four years to live. So we need to find ways to treat MGUS early, before it turns into cancer. Unfortunately, no such treatment exists. Rather, patients are just placed in a kind of holding pattern with frequent check-ups. If all we're going to do is watch and wait, researchers figured to might as well try some dietary changes.

One such dietary change is adding curcumin, the yellow pigment in the spice turmeric. Why curcumin? It's relatively safe, considering that it has been consumed as a dietary spice for centuries. And it kills multiple myeloma cells. In my video Turmeric Curcumin, MGUS, & Multiple Myeloma, you can see the unimpeded growth of four different cell lines of multiple myeloma. We start out with about 5000 cancer cells at the beginning of the week, which then that doubles, triples, and quadruples in a matter of days. If we add a little bit of curcumin, growth is stunted. If we add a lot of curcumin, growth is stopped. This was in a petri dish, but it is exciting enough to justify trying curcumin in a clinical trial. And six years later, researchers did.

We can measure the progression of the disease by the rise in blood levels of paraprotein, which is what's made by MGUS and myeloma cells. About 1 in 3 of the patients responded to the curcumin with dropping paraprotein levels, whereas there were no responses in the placebo group. These positive findings prompted researchers to commence a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. The same kind of positive biomarker response was seen in both MGUS patients as well as those with so-called "smoldering" multiple myeloma, an early stage of the cancer. These findings suggest that curcumin might have the potential to slow the disease process in patients, delaying or preventing the progression of MGUS to multiple myeloma. However, we won't know for sure until longer larger studies are done.

The best way to deal with multiple myeloma is to not get it in the first place. In my 2010 video Meat & Multiple Myeloma, I profiled a study suggesting that vegetarians have just a quarter the risk of multiple myeloma compared to meat-eaters. Even just working with chicken meat may double one's risk of multiple myeloma, the thinking being that cancers like leukemias, lymphomas, and myelomas may be induced by so-called zoonotic (animal-to-human) cancer-causing viruses found in both cattle and chickens. Beef, however, was not associated with multiple myeloma.

There are, however, some vegetarian foods we may want to avoid. Harvard researchers reported a controversial link between diet soda and multiple myeloma, implicating aspartame. Studies suggest french fries and potato chips should not be the way we get our vegetables, nor should we probably pickle them. While the intake of shallots, garlic, soy foods, and green tea was significantly associated with a reduced risk of multiple myeloma, intake of pickled vegetables three times a week or more was associated with increased risk.

For dietary links to other blood cancers, see EPIC Findings on Lymphoma.

The turmeric story just never seems to end. I recommend a quarter teaspoon a day:

Why might garlic and tea help? See Cancer, Interrupted: Garlic & Flavonoids and Cancer Interrupted, Green Tea.

More on the effects of NutraSweet in Aspartame and the Brain and acrylamide in Cancer Risk From French Fries.

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: Sally Plank / Flickr. Image has been modified.

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Best Food for MGUS to Prevent Multiple Myeloma

Best Food for MGUS to Prevent Multiple Myeloma.jpeg

Multiple myeloma is one of our most dreaded cancers. It's a cancer of our antibody-producing plasma cells, and is considered one of our most intractable blood diseases. The precursor disease is called monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). When it was named, it's significance was undetermined, but now we know that multiple myeloma is almost always preceded by MGUS. This makes MGUS one of the most common premalignant disorders, with a prevalence of about 3% in the older white general population, and about 2 to 3 times that in African-American populations.

MGUS itself is asymptomatic, you don't even know you have it until your doctor finds it incidentally doing routine bloodwork. But should it progress to multiple myeloma, you only have about four years to live. So we need to find ways to treat MGUS early, before it turns into cancer. Unfortunately, no such treatment exists. Rather, patients are just placed in a kind of holding pattern with frequent check-ups. If all we're going to do is watch and wait, researchers figured to might as well try some dietary changes.

One such dietary change is adding curcumin, the yellow pigment in the spice turmeric. Why curcumin? It's relatively safe, considering that it has been consumed as a dietary spice for centuries. And it kills multiple myeloma cells. In my video Turmeric Curcumin, MGUS, & Multiple Myeloma, you can see the unimpeded growth of four different cell lines of multiple myeloma. We start out with about 5000 cancer cells at the beginning of the week, which then that doubles, triples, and quadruples in a matter of days. If we add a little bit of curcumin, growth is stunted. If we add a lot of curcumin, growth is stopped. This was in a petri dish, but it is exciting enough to justify trying curcumin in a clinical trial. And six years later, researchers did.

We can measure the progression of the disease by the rise in blood levels of paraprotein, which is what's made by MGUS and myeloma cells. About 1 in 3 of the patients responded to the curcumin with dropping paraprotein levels, whereas there were no responses in the placebo group. These positive findings prompted researchers to commence a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. The same kind of positive biomarker response was seen in both MGUS patients as well as those with so-called "smoldering" multiple myeloma, an early stage of the cancer. These findings suggest that curcumin might have the potential to slow the disease process in patients, delaying or preventing the progression of MGUS to multiple myeloma. However, we won't know for sure until longer larger studies are done.

The best way to deal with multiple myeloma is to not get it in the first place. In my 2010 video Meat & Multiple Myeloma, I profiled a study suggesting that vegetarians have just a quarter the risk of multiple myeloma compared to meat-eaters. Even just working with chicken meat may double one's risk of multiple myeloma, the thinking being that cancers like leukemias, lymphomas, and myelomas may be induced by so-called zoonotic (animal-to-human) cancer-causing viruses found in both cattle and chickens. Beef, however, was not associated with multiple myeloma.

There are, however, some vegetarian foods we may want to avoid. Harvard researchers reported a controversial link between diet soda and multiple myeloma, implicating aspartame. Studies suggest french fries and potato chips should not be the way we get our vegetables, nor should we probably pickle them. While the intake of shallots, garlic, soy foods, and green tea was significantly associated with a reduced risk of multiple myeloma, intake of pickled vegetables three times a week or more was associated with increased risk.

For dietary links to other blood cancers, see EPIC Findings on Lymphoma.

The turmeric story just never seems to end. I recommend a quarter teaspoon a day:

Why might garlic and tea help? See Cancer, Interrupted: Garlic & Flavonoids and Cancer Interrupted, Green Tea.

More on the effects of NutraSweet in Aspartame and the Brain and acrylamide in Cancer Risk From French Fries.

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: Sally Plank / Flickr. Image has been modified.

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How May Eating Plants Help Prevent Alzheimer’s Disease?

NF-Oct27 Preventing Alzheimers Disease with Plants.jpeg

Intake of saturated fats and added sugars, two of the primary components of a modern Western diet, is linked with the development of Alzheimer's disease. There has been a global shift in dietary composition, from traditional diets high in starches and fiber, to what has been termed the Western diet, high in fat and sugar, low in whole, plant foods. What's so great about fruits and vegetables?

Plant-derived foods contain thousands of compounds with antioxidant properties, some of which can traverse the blood-brain barrier and may have neuroprotective effects by assisting with antioxidant defense. There's this concept of "brain rust," that neurodegenerative diseases arise from excess oxidative stress. But Nature has gifted humankind with a plethora of plants--fruits, vegetables, and nuts, and the diverse array of bioactive nutrients present in these natural products may play a pivotal role in prevention and one day, perhaps, even the cure of various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease.

Accumulated evidence suggests that naturally occurring plant compounds may potentially hinder neurodegeneration, and even improve memory and cognitive function, as I've shared in my videos Preventing Alzheimer's Disease with Plants and How to Slow Brain Aging By Two Years) and treating Alzheimer's with spices such as saffron or turmeric (See Saffron for the Treatment of Alzheimer's and Treating Alzheimer's with Turmeric).

Vegetables may be particularly protective, in part because of certain compounds we eat that concentrate in the brain, found in dark green leafy vegetables, the consumption of which are associated with lower rates of age-related cognitive decline.

Yet when you look at systemic reviews on what we can do to prevent cognitive decline, you'll see conclusions like this: "The current literature does not provide adequate evidence to make recommendations for interventions." The same is said for Alzheimer's, "Currently, insufficient evidence exists to draw firm conclusions on the association of any modifiable factors with risk of Alzheimer's disease." Doctors cite the lack of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as the basis for their conclusions. RCTs are the gold standard used to test new medicines. This is where researchers randomize people into two groups, half get the drug and half don't, to control for confounding factors. The highest level of evidence is necessary because drugs may kill a hundred thousand Americans every year - not medication errors or illicit drugs, just regular, FDA-approved prescription drugs, making medication alone the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. So, you better make absolutely sure the benefits of new drugs outweigh the often life-threatening risks.

But we're talking about diet and exercise--the side effects are all good, so we don't need the same level of rigorous evidence to prescribe them.

A "modest proposal" was published recently in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, an editorial calling for a longitudinal study of dementia prevention. They agreed that definitive evidence for the effectiveness of dementia prevention methods was lacking, so we need large-scaled randomized trials. They suggested we start with 10,000 healthy volunteers in their 20's and split them into five groups. There's evidence, for example, that traumatic brain injury is a risk factor for Alzheimer's, because people with head injuries appear more likely to get the disease, but it's never been put to the test. So, they say, let's take two thousand people and beat half of them in the head with baseball bats, and the other half we'll use Styrofoam bats as a control. Afterall, until we have randomized controls, how can't physicians recommend patients not get hit in the head? They go further saying we should probably chain a thousand people to a treadmill for 40 years, and a thousand people to a couch before recommending exercise. A thousand will be forced to do crossword puzzles; another thousand forced to watch Jerry Springer reruns, lots of meat and dairy or not prescribed for another group for the next 40 years, and we can hook a thousand folks on four packs a day just to be sure.

We help our patients to quit smoking despite the fact that there's not a single randomized controlled trial where they held people down and piped smoke into their lungs for a few decades. It is time to realize that the ultimate study in regard to lifestyle and cognitive health cannot be done. Yet the absence of definitive evidence should not restrict physicians from making reasonable recommendations based on the evidence that is available.

I've discussed how drug-centric approaches to evidence-based medicine may neglect some of the most convincing data: Evidence-Based Medicine or Evidence-Biased?

To see how and why I built NutritionFacts.org on evidence-based principles, see my recent introductory videos:

A sampling of some of my Alzheimer's videos:

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations--2013: Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, 2014: From Table to Able: Combating Disabling Diseases with Food, 2015: Food as Medicine: Preventing and Treating the Most Dreaded Diseases with Diet, and my latest, 2016: How Not To Die: The Role of Diet in Preventing, Arresting, and Reversing Our Top 15 Killers.

Image Credit: Michael Heim / 123rf

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How Turmeric Can Help Combat the Effects of Sitting

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The average American spends most of their waking life sitting down, which is associated with an increased risk of death even among people who go to the gym after work and exercise regularly. Doing lots of sitting may double our risk of diabetes and heart disease while significantly shortening our lifespan, even at the highest levels of physical activity. Sitting six or more hours a day may increase mortality rates even among those running or swimming an hour a day, every day, seven days a week. Why though? I examine this in Turmeric Cucumin vs. Exercise for Artery Function.

One factor may be endothelial dysfunction, the inability of the inner lining of our blood vessels to relax our arteries normally in response to blood flow. Just like our muscles atrophy if we don't use them, when it comes to arterial function, it's 'use it or lose it' as well. Increased blood flow promotes a healthy endothelium. The cells lining our arteries can actually sense the sheer force of the blood flowing past. That flow is what maintains the stability and integrity of the inner lining of our arteries. Without that constant tugging flow, it may help set us up for heart disease.

We actually have some data now suggesting that treadmill desks may improve the health of office workers without affecting work performance, and walking may be preferable to standing in terms of clearing fat from our bloodstream, which can play a role in endothelial dysfunction.

What if our office can't accommodate a standing or walking desk? Within an hour of sitting, blood starts pooling and blood flow starts to stagnate, so the more we can take breaks the better. Preliminary evidence from observational and interventional studies suggests that regular interruptions in sitting time can be beneficial. And it doesn't have to be long. Breaks could be as short as one minute and not necessarily entail exercise, just something like taking out the trash during commercials may be beneficial.

I've talked about the effects of different diets on endothelial function (See Eggs and Arterial Function, Walnuts and Arterial Function, Vinegar and Artery Function, and Dark Chocolate and Artery Function) and how certain foods in particular--nuts and green tea--are beneficial for endothelial health. Recently, researchers tried out curcumin, the yellow pigment in the spice turmeric.

They showed that regular ingestion of curcumin or up to an hour a day of aerobic exercise training significantly improved endothelial function. And the magnitude of improvement in endothelial function was the same. So does that mean we can just be a couch potato as long as we eat curried potatoes? No, the combination of curcumin and exercise appears to work even better than either alone.

I'm on my third treadmill desk motor, after burning out two. The 2nd one lasted 7,000 miles, though. Could have walked back and forth across the country! I do about 17 miles a day. More on treadmill desks in Standing Up for Your Health.

Amazing how much beneficial just simple walking can be: Longer Life Within Walking Distance

More exercise versus diet comparisons in Is it the Diet, the Exercise, or Both? and How Much Exercise to Sustain Weight Loss.

For more on turmeric and exercise see Heart of Gold: Turmeric vs Exercise.

Who Shouldn't Consume Curcumin or Turmeric? See the video! :)

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations--2013: Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, 2014: From Table to Able: Combating Disabling Diseases with Food, 2015: Food as Medicine: Preventing and Treating the Most Dreaded Diseases with Diet, and my latest, 2016: How Not To Die: The Role of Diet in Preventing, Arresting, and Reversing Our Top 15 Killers.

Image Credit: Decius & Josep Curto / 123rf

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Treating Pancreatic Cancer with Turmeric Curcumin

NF-May26 Turmeric Curcumin and Pancreatic Cancer.jpeg

Pancreatic cancer is among the most aggressive forms of human cancer, characterized by a very high mortality rate. It represents the fourth leading cause of cancer death in United States, killing 32,000 people annually. With a five-year survival rate of only three percent and a median survival rate of less than six months, pancreatic cancer carries one of the poorest prognoses. The diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is one of the worst things a doctor ever has to tell a patient. The only FDA-approved therapies for it, Gemcitabine and Erlotinib, produce objective responses in less than ten percent of patients, while causing severe side-effects in the majority. There is a desperate need for new options.

Clinical research to test new treatments is split into phases. Phase I trials are just to make sure the treatment is safe, to see how much you can give before it becomes toxic. Curcumin, the natural yellow pigment in the spice turmeric has passed a number of those. In fact, there was so little toxicity, the dosing appeared limited only by the number of pills patients were willing to swallow.

Phase II trials are conducted to see if the drug actually has an effect. Curcumin did, in 2 of the 21 patients that were evaluated. One patient had a 73 percent tumor reduction, but the effect was short-lived. One lesion remained small, but a curcumin-resistant tumor clone emerged. The other patient, who had a stable disease for over 18 months, showed slow improvement over a year. The only time that patient's cancer markers bumped up was during a brief three-week stint where the curcumin was stopped.

So curcumin does seem to help some patients with pancreatic cancer, and most importantly, there appears to be little downside. No curcumin-related toxic effects were observed in up to doses of eight grams per day. What happens after eight grams? We don't know because no one was willing to take that many pills. The patients were willing to go on one of the nastiest chemotherapy regimens on the planet, but didn't want to be inconvenienced with swallowing a lot of capsules.

The only surefire way to beat pancreatic cancer is to prevent it in the first place. In 2010 I profiled a study conducted by the National Institutes of Health, the largest such study in history, which found that dietary fat of animal origin was associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk.

Which animal fat is the worst? The second largest study (highlighted in my video: Turmeric Curcumin and Pancreatic Cancer) has since chimed in to help answer that question. Researchers found that poultry was the worst, with 72 percent increased risk of pancreatic cancer associated with every 50 grams of daily poultry consumption. Fifty grams is just about a quarter of a chicken breast. The reason white meat came out worse than red may be because of the cooked meat carcinogens in chicken, the heterocyclic amines that build up in grilled and baked chicken. These mutagenic chemicals have been associated with a doubling of pancreatic cancer risk (See Estrogenic Cooked Meat Carcinogens).

Meat has been associated with significantly increased risk, whereas fake meat is associated with significantly less risk. Those who eat plant-based meats like veggie burgers or veggie dogs three or more times a week had less than half the risk of fatal pancreatic cancer. Legumes and dried fruit appear to be similarly protective.

My grandfather died of pancreatic cancer. By the time the first symptom arose, a dull ache in his gut, it was too late. That's why we need to work on preventing it.

I previously touched on pancreatic cancer prevention in Poultry Exposure Tied to Liver and Pancreatic Cancer and attempts at pancreatic cancer treatment in Gerson Therapy for Cancer and Gerson-style Therapy vs. Chemotherapy.

For more on the heterocyclic amine cooked meat carcinogens:

I've done a bunch of videos on turmeric and various cancers:

And more on this amazing spice (and more to come):

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, From Table to Able, and Food as Medicine.

Image Credit: Sara Marlowe / Flickr

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Can Turmeric Help with Alzheimer’s?

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The spice turmeric may help prevent Alzheimer's disease (See Preventing Alzheimer's with Turmeric), but what about treating Alzheimer's disease with turmeric? An exciting case series was published in 2012 (highlighted in my video, Treating Alzheimer's with Turmeric): three Alzheimer's patients were treated with turmeric, and their symptoms improved.

In case number one, an 83-year-old woman started losing her memory and feeling disoriented. She started having problems taking care of herself, wandering aimlessly and became incontinent. After taking a teaspoon of turmeric per day however, her agitation, apathy, anxiety and irritability were relieved and she had less accidents. Furthermore, she began to laugh again, sing again, and knit again. After taking turmeric for more than a year, she came to recognize her family and now lives a peaceful life without a significant behavioral or psychological symptom of dementia.

Case number two was similar, but with the additional symptoms of hallucinations, delusions and depression, which were relieved by turmeric. She began to recognize her family again and now lives in a peacefully serene manner. And the third case, similar as well, included an improvement in cognition.

Researchers concluded that this was the first demonstration of turmeric as an effective and safe "drug" for the treatment of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in Alzheimer's patients. They call it a drug, but it's just a spice you can walk into any grocery store and buy for a few bucks. They were giving people like a teaspoon a day, which comes out to be about 15 cents.

Two trials using curcumin supplements rather than turmeric, however, failed to show a benefit. Curcumin is just one of hundreds of phytochemicals found in turmeric. Concentrated into pill form at up to 40 times the dose, no evidence of efficacy was found. Why didn't they get the same dramatic results we saw in the three case reports? Well, those three cases may have been total flukes, but on the other hand, turmeric, the whole food, may be greater than the sum of its parts.

There is a long list of compounds that have been isolated from turmeric, and it's possible that each component plays a distinct role in making it useful against Alzheimer's disease. Hence, researchers suggested that a mixture of compounds might better represent turmeric in its medicinal value better than curcumin alone. But why concoct some artificial mixture when Mother Nature already did it for us with turmeric? Because you can't patent the spice. And if you can't patent it, how are you going to charge more than 15 cents?

I've previously addressed the thorny issue of patenting natural plant remedies in my video: Plants as Intellectual Property - Patently Wrong?

The whole-greater-than-the-sum-of-its-parts theme is one that comes up over and over:

What else might the cheap, easily available spice turmeric do? It may help fight arthritis (Turmeric Curcumin and Rheumatoid Arthritis and Turmeric Curcumin and Osteoarthritis) and cancer:

But it's not for everyone: Who Shouldn't Consume Curcumin or Turmeric?

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, From Table to Able, and Food as Medicine.

Image Credit: Steven Jackson / Flickr

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Might Turmeric Help Prevent Alzheimer’s?

NF-Apr12 Preventing Alzheimer's with Turmeric.jpeg

There are plenty of anti-inflammatory drugs out there that may reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease, but stomach, liver, and kidney toxicity precludes their widespread use. So maybe using an anti-inflammatory food like the spice, turmeric, found in curry powder, could offer the benefits without the risks? Before even considering putting it to the test, though, one might ask, "Well, do populations that eat a lot of turmeric have a lower prevalence of dementia?" And indeed, those living in rural India who do just that may actually have the lowest reported prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's.

In rural Pennsylvania, the incidence rate of Alzheimer's disease among seniors is 19/1000. Nineteen people in a thousand over age 65 develop Alzheimer's every year in rural Pennsylvania. In rural India, using the same diagnostic criteria, that same rate is three, confirming they have among the lowest reported Alzheimer's rates in the world.

Although the lower prevalence of Alzheimer's in India is generally attributed to the turmeric consumption as a part of curry, and it is assumed that people who use turmeric regularly have a lower incidence of the disease, but let's not just assume. As highlighted in my video, Preventing Alzheimer's with Turmeric, a thousand people were tested, and those who consumed curry at least occasionally did better on simple cognitive tests than those who didn't. Those that ate curry often also had only about half the odds of showing cognitive impairment, after adjusting for a wide variety of potential confounding factors. This suggests that curry consumption may indeed be associated with better cognitive performance.

Of course it probably matters what's being curried--are we talking chicken masala, or chana masala, with chickpeas instead of chicks? It may be no coincidence that the country with among the lowest rates of Alzheimer's also has among the lowest rates of meat consumption, with a significant percentage of Indians eating meat-free and egg-free diets.

Studies have suggested for nearly 20 years now that those who eat meat--red meat or white meat--appear between two to three times more likely to become demented compared to vegetarians. And the longer one eats meat-free, the lower the associated risk of dementia, whether or not you like curry.

There's another spice that may be useful for brain health. See my video Saffron for the Treatment of Alzheimer's. What about coconut oil? See Does Coconut Oil Cure Alzheimer's? In terms of preventing cognitive decline in the first place, check out my video How to Slow Brain Aging By Two Years.

I've raised the issue of plant-based diets and dementia in Alzheimer's Disease: Grain Brain or Meathead?

For more on spices and inflammation, see Which Spices Fight Inflammation? and the follow-up, Spicing Up DNA Protection.

What about treating Alzheimer's disease with the spice turmeric? That's the topic of my video, Treating Alzheimer's with Turmeric.

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, From Table to Able, and Food as Medicine.

Image Credit: Marcel Oosterwijk / Flickr

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How to Suppress the Aging Enzyme TOR

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Over the last decade, more than 5,000 papers have been published about TOR, an engine-of-aging enzyme inhibited by the drug rapamycin. (What is TOR? Check out my videos Why Do We Age? and Caloric Restriction vs. Animal Protein Restriction.) Rapamycin has been used experimentally to extend lifespan, but is already in use clinically to prevent the rejection of kidney transplants. Patients who received rapamycin due to renal transplantation had a peculiar "side effect," a decrease in cancer incidence. In a set of 15 patients who had biopsy proven Kaposi's sarcoma (a cancer that often affects the skin), all cutaneous sarcoma lesions disappeared in all patients within three months after starting rapamycin therapy.

TOR functions as a master regulator of cellular growth and proliferation. For example, TOR is upregulated in nearly 100% of advanced human prostate cancers (See Prevent Cancer From Going on TOR). So, reductions in cancerous lesions after rapamycin therapy make sense. TOR may also be why dairy consumption has been found to be a major dietary risk factor for prostate cancer. We used to think it was just the hormones in milk, but maybe prostate cancer initiation and progression is also promoted by cow's milk stimulation of TOR.

Our understanding of mammalian milk has changed from a simple food to a "species-specific endocrine signaling system," which activates TOR, promoting cell growth and proliferation and suppressing our body's internal housecleaning mechanisms. Normally, milk-mediated TOR stimulation is restricted only to infancy where we really need that constant signal to our cells to grow and divide. So from an evolutionary perspective, "the persistent 'abuse' of the growth-promoting signaling system of cow's milk by drinking milk over our entire life span may maintain the most important hallmark of cancer biology, sustained proliferative signaling."

TOR appears to play a role in breast cancer, too. Higher TOR expression has been noted in breast cancer tumors, associated with more aggressive disease, and lower survival rate among breast cancer patients. Altered TOR expression could explain why women hospitalized for anorexia may end up with only half the risk of breast cancer. Severe caloric restriction in humans may confer protection from invasive breast cancer by suppressing TOR activation.

We don't have to starve ourselves to suppress TOR; just reducing animal protein intake can attenuate overall TOR activity. Moreover, diets emphasizing plants, especially cruciferous vegetables, have both decreased TOR activation from animal proteins and provide natural plant-derived inhibitors of TOR found in broccoli, green tea, soy, turmeric, and grapes, along with other fruits and vegetables such as onions, strawberries, blueberries, mangoes and the skin of cucumbers.

The downregulation of TOR may be one reason why plant-based in general are associated with lower risk for many cancers. "Are we finally on the threshold of being able to fundamentally alter human aging and age-related disease?" asks researchers in the journal Nature. Only time will tell, but if the pace and direction of recent progress are any indication, the next 5,000 studies on TOR should prove very interesting indeed.

More on dairy and prostate cancer in Prostate Cancer and Organic Milk vs. Almond Milk.

This story continues in my video: Saving Lives By Treating Acne With Diet.

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, From Table to Able, and Food as Medicine.

Image Credit: Grempz / Flickr

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Topical Application of Turmeric Curcumin for Cancer

NF-Oct27 Topical application for turmeric curcumin for cancer .jpg
In my video, Turmeric Curcumin and Colon Cancer, I talked about a study where researchers showed that, by taking curcumin, the yellow pigment in the spices turmeric and curry powder, those at high risk for colon cancer could cut down on precancerous and even pre-precancerous lesions, in effect reversing cancer progression. Are there other high risk lesions we can try spicing up?

How about giving turmeric extracts to people who just had bladder cancer taken out? Or to those who have an early stage of squamous cell carcinoma skin cancer caused by arsenic exposure, or early stage cervical cancer, or precancerous lesions in the mouth or stomach? Researchers did this, and in about a quarter of the patients, the lesions started to get better. One out of the two bladder cancer survivors, two out of seven patients with precancerous mouth lesions, one out of six patients with precancerous stomach lesions, one out of four early stage cervical cancer cases, and two out of six patients with early stage skin cancer, all without any noticeable side-effects.

One of the reasons turmeric curcumin may work in some cancers better than others, or in some people better than others, is differences in bioavailability. Megadoses were given, yet just a tiny amount ended up in the bloodstream. If we're treating skin cancer, though, why not just put the curcumin directly on the skin?

I've talked about what turmeric compounds can do to cancer cells in a petri dish. In the video, Topical Application of Turmeric Curcumin for Cancer, you can see some before and after pics. Cervical cancer cells are laid to waste as more and more curcumin is added, and normal cells are unharmed. But to make it to the cervix, curcumin must be absorbed (though a vaginal cream has been invented).

A variety of delivery methods have been devised, including oral, intra-abdominal, intramuscular, under-the-skin injections, straight into the veins or the arteries, on the skin, up the bladder, in the nose, breathed like an inhaler, up where the sun don't shine, or straight into the spinal column, bone marrow, the tumor itself, or implanted somehow. Taken orally, some curcumin does actually get into the tissues. We can measure the amount of curcumin absorbed into the wall of the intestine by examining biopsies and surgical specimens taken after a curcumin regimen. It makes sense to take turmeric orally to try to fight colon cancer, but if we have cancer erupting on our skin why not just rub it on directly?

That's what one group of researchers did. They took some turmeric from the store, made a tincture out of it, dried it, put it in Vaseline, and then had cancer patients rub it on their cancer three times a day. What kind of cancer can you get at with a finger? These were folks with cancers of the mouth, breast, skin, vulva, and elsewhere. Isn't breast cancer under the surface? Not always. Advanced breast cancer can ulcerate right through the skin. The subjects were all people with recurrent ulcerating tumors that had failed to respond to surgery, radiation, and chemo. These open cancers can stink, itch, and ooze, and there was nothing else medicine had to offer. So they rubbed some turmeric ointment to see what happened. It produced remarkable relief. A reduction in smell was noted in 90% of the cases, even in extensively ulcerated cases of breast cancer, and a reduction in itching in almost all cases as well. For example, treatment relieved severe itching in two of the vulva cancer patients. Most of the lesions dried up, and in many cases this relief lasted for months, all from just rubbing on the harmless spice turmeric, which the researchers describe as "an indigenous drug ... highly effective in reducing smell, itching and exudate." The effect of this so-called drug is remarkable. And that "drug" is just some edible spice used in curries for centuries.

More on what this golden spice can do in:

There are ways of Boosting the Bioavailability of Curcumin to get it into our blood stream.

Some should be cautious about turmeric use, though. See Who Shouldn't Consume Curcumin or Turmeric?

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, From Table to Able, and Food as Medicine.

Image Credit: Andrea Kirkby / Flickr

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Preventing and Treating Colon Cancer with Turmeric Curcumin

NF-Oct20 Turmeric Curcumin and Colon Cancer .jpg

The low incidence of bowel cancer in India is often attributed to natural antioxidants such as curcumin, the yellow pigment in the spice turmeric, used in curry powder. However, it is important to remember that the benefits of a diet are seldom produced by a single ingredient in that diet. For example, diets rich in beta-carotene lower the risk of tobacco-related cancers, but beta-carotene pills do not. That doesn't stop researchers from trying, though.

Back in 2001, in a last ditch attempt to save the lives of 15 patients with advanced colorectal cancer that didn't respond to any of the standard chemotherapy agents or radiation, researchers started them on a turmeric extract. The extract appeared to help stall the disease in a third (5 out of 15) of the patients, suggesting that turmeric extract may clinically benefit at least some patients with advanced refractory colorectal cancer.

If we were talking about some new kind of chemotherapy, and it only helped one in three, we'd have to weigh the benefits against chemo side effects, such as losing our hair, the sloughing of our guts, intractable vomiting, maybe being bed-ridden. Therefore, a drug scenario, a one in three benefit may not sound particularly appealing. But when we're talking about plant extract proven to be remarkably safe, it would be worth considering even if it just helped 1 in a 100. With no serious downsides, a one in three benefit for end-stage cancer is pretty exciting.

To see if colon cancer could be prevented, five years later, researchers at Cleveland Clinic and John Hopkins School of Medicine tested two phytochemicals, curcumin (from turmeric) and quercitin, (found in fruits and vegetables such as red onions and grapes) in people with familial adenomatous polyposis, an inherited form of colon cancer in which individuals develop hundreds of polyps that may become cancerous unless prophylactically removed. (See Turmeric Curcumin and Colon Cancer). Researchers gave supplements of curcumin and quercetin to five such patients who already had their colons removed, but still had either polyps in their rectum or in a little intestinal pouch. Each patient had between 5 and 45 polyps each, but after six months on the supplement they ended up with on average fewer than half the polyps, and the ones that were left had shrunk in half. One patient got rid of all polyps by month three, but then they seemed to come back. The researchers asked the patient what's what, and it turned out that the patient stopped taking the supplements. So researchers put the patient back on the phytonutrient supplements for another three months, and the polyps came back down with virtually no adverse events and no blood test abnormalities.

By studying people at high risk for colon cancer, the researchers were able to show noticeable effects within just months. But polyposis is a rare disease; they were only able to recruit five people for the study. Thankfully, smokers are a dime a dozen. After another five years, researchers put 44 smokers on turmeric curcumin supplements alone for a month and measured changes in their colorectal aberrant crypt foci, which may act like the precursors to polyps, which are the precursors to cancer. After just one month there was a significant drop in the number of these abnormal crypt foci in the high dose supplement group but no change in the low dose group. There were also no dose-limiting side effects (although the stools in the participants did turn yellow).

The low cancer rates in India may also be related to phytate consumption (Phytates for the Prevention of Cancer) and plant-centered diets (Back to Our Roots: Curry and Cancer).

More on turmeric and Cancer in Carcinogenic Blocking Effects of Turmeric and Turmeric Curcumin Reprogramming Cancer Cell Death.

Given the poor systemic absorption of turmeric compounds, what cancers other than that of the digestive tract may be directly affected? See my follow-up video Topical Application of Turmeric Curcumin for Cancer.

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, From Table to Able, and Food as Medicine.

Image Credit: sea turtle / Flickr

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