Foods to Avoid to Help Prevent Diabetes

Oct 24 Foods to Avoid copy.jpeg

We've known that being overweight and obese are important risk factors for type 2 diabetes, but, until recently, not much attention has been paid to the role of specific foods. I discuss this issue in my video, Why Is Meat a Risk Factor for Diabetes?

A 2013 meta-analysis of all the cohorts looking at the connection between meat and diabetes found a significantly higher risk associated with total meat consumption--especially consumption of processed meat, particularly poultry. But why? There's a whole list of potential culprits in meat: saturated fat, animal fat, trans fats naturally found in meat, cholesterol, or animal protein. It could be the heme iron found in meat, which can lead to free radicals and iron-induced oxidative stress that may lead to chronic inflammation and type 2 diabetes, or advanced glycation end (AGE) products, which promote oxidative stress and inflammation. Food analyses show that the highest levels of these so-called glycotoxins are found in meat--particularly roasted, fried, or broiled meat, though any foods from animal sources (and even high fat and protein plant foods such as nuts) exposed to high dry temperatures can be potent sources of these pro-oxidant chemicals.

In another study, researchers fed diabetics glycotoxin-packed foods, like chicken, fish, and eggs, and their inflammatory markers--tumor necrosis factor, C-reactive protein, and vascular adhesion molecules--shot up. "Thus, in diabetes, environmental (dietary) AGEs promote inflammatory mediators, leading to tissue injury." The good news is that restriction of these kinds of foods may suppress these inflammatory effects. Appropriate measures to limit AGE intake, such as eliminating meat or using only steaming and boiling as methods for cooking it, "may greatly reduce the already heavy burden of these toxins in the diabetic patient." These glycotoxins may be the missing link between the increased consumption of animal fat and meats and the development of type 2 diabetes.

Since the 2013 meta-analysis was published, another study came out in which approximately 17,000 people were followed for about a dozen years. Researchers found an 8% increased risk for every 50 grams of daily meat consumption. Just one quarter of a chicken breast's worth of meat for the entire day may significantly increase the risk of diabetes. Yes, we know there are many possible culprits: the glycotoxins or trans fat in meat, saturated fat, or the heme iron (which could actually promote the formation of carcinogens called nitrosamines, though they could also just be produced in the cooking process itself). However, we did learn something new: There also appears to be a greater incidence of diabetes among those who handle meat for a living. Maybe there are some diabetes-causing zoonotic infectious agents--such as viruses--present in fresh cuts of meat, including poultry.

A "crucial factor underlying the diabetes epidemic" may be the overstimulation of the aging enzyme TOR pathway by excess food consumption--but not by the consumption of just any food: Animal proteins not only stimulate the cancer-promoting hormone insulin growth factor-1 but also provide high amounts of leucine, which stimulates TOR activation and appears to contribute to the burning out of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, contributing to type 2 diabetes. So, it's not just the high fat and added sugars that are implicated; critical attention must be paid to the daily intake of animal proteins as well.

According to a study, "[i]n general, lower leucine levels are only reached by restriction of animal proteins." To reach the leucine intake provided by dairy or meat, we'd have to eat 9 pounds of cabbage or 100 apples to take an extreme example. That just exemplifies the extreme differences in leucine amounts provided by a more standard diet in comparison with a more plant-based diet.

I reviewed the role endocrine-disrupting industrial pollutants in the food supply may play in a three-part video series: Fish and Diabetes, Diabetes and Dioxins, and Pollutants in Salmon and Our Own Fat. Clearly, the standard America diet and lifestyle contribute to the epidemic of diabetes and obesity, but the contribution of these industrial pollutants can no longer be ignored. We now have experimental evidence that exposure to industrial toxins alone induces weight gain and insulin resistance, and, therefore, may be an underappreciated cause of obesity and diabetes. Consider what's happening to our infants: Obesity in a six-month-old is obviously not related to diet or lack of exercise. They're now exposed to hundreds of chemicals from their moms, straight through the umbilical cord, some of which may be obesogenic (that is, obesity-generating).

The millions of pounds of chemicals and heavy metals released every year into our environment should make us all stop and think about how we live and the choices we make every day in the foods we eat. A 2014 review of the evidence on pollutants and diabetes noted that we can be exposed through toxic spills, but "most of the human exposure nowadays is from the ingestion of contaminated food as a result of bioaccumulation up the food chain. The main source (around 95%) of [persistent pollutant] intake is through dietary intake of animal fats."


For more on the information mentioned here, see the following videos that take a closer look at these major topics:

AGEs: Glycotoxins, Avoiding a Sugary Grave, and Reducing Glycotoxin Intake to Prevent Alzheimer's.

TOR: Why Do We Age?, Caloric Restriction vs. Animal Protein Restriction, Prevent Cancer From Going on TOR, and Saving Lives By Treating Acne With Diet

Viruses: Infectobesity: Adenovirus 36 and Childhood Obesity

Poultry workers: Poultry Exposure and Neurological Disease, Poultry Exposure Tied to Liver and Pancreatic Cancer, and Eating Outside Our Kingdom

Industrial pollutants: Obesity-Causing Pollutants in Food, Fish and Diabetes, Diabetes and Dioxins, and Pollutants in Salmon and Our Own Fat

The link between meat and diabetes may also be due to a lack of sufficient protective components of plants in the diet, which is discussed in my videos How May Plants Protect Against Diabetes?, Plant-Based Diets for Diabetes, Plant-Based Diets and Diabetes, and How Not to Die from Diabetes.

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Original Link

Foods to Avoid to Help Prevent Diabetes

Oct 24 Foods to Avoid copy.jpeg

We've known that being overweight and obese are important risk factors for type 2 diabetes, but, until recently, not much attention has been paid to the role of specific foods. I discuss this issue in my video, Why Is Meat a Risk Factor for Diabetes?

A 2013 meta-analysis of all the cohorts looking at the connection between meat and diabetes found a significantly higher risk associated with total meat consumption--especially consumption of processed meat, particularly poultry. But why? There's a whole list of potential culprits in meat: saturated fat, animal fat, trans fats naturally found in meat, cholesterol, or animal protein. It could be the heme iron found in meat, which can lead to free radicals and iron-induced oxidative stress that may lead to chronic inflammation and type 2 diabetes, or advanced glycation end (AGE) products, which promote oxidative stress and inflammation. Food analyses show that the highest levels of these so-called glycotoxins are found in meat--particularly roasted, fried, or broiled meat, though any foods from animal sources (and even high fat and protein plant foods such as nuts) exposed to high dry temperatures can be potent sources of these pro-oxidant chemicals.

In another study, researchers fed diabetics glycotoxin-packed foods, like chicken, fish, and eggs, and their inflammatory markers--tumor necrosis factor, C-reactive protein, and vascular adhesion molecules--shot up. "Thus, in diabetes, environmental (dietary) AGEs promote inflammatory mediators, leading to tissue injury." The good news is that restriction of these kinds of foods may suppress these inflammatory effects. Appropriate measures to limit AGE intake, such as eliminating meat or using only steaming and boiling as methods for cooking it, "may greatly reduce the already heavy burden of these toxins in the diabetic patient." These glycotoxins may be the missing link between the increased consumption of animal fat and meats and the development of type 2 diabetes.

Since the 2013 meta-analysis was published, another study came out in which approximately 17,000 people were followed for about a dozen years. Researchers found an 8% increased risk for every 50 grams of daily meat consumption. Just one quarter of a chicken breast's worth of meat for the entire day may significantly increase the risk of diabetes. Yes, we know there are many possible culprits: the glycotoxins or trans fat in meat, saturated fat, or the heme iron (which could actually promote the formation of carcinogens called nitrosamines, though they could also just be produced in the cooking process itself). However, we did learn something new: There also appears to be a greater incidence of diabetes among those who handle meat for a living. Maybe there are some diabetes-causing zoonotic infectious agents--such as viruses--present in fresh cuts of meat, including poultry.

A "crucial factor underlying the diabetes epidemic" may be the overstimulation of the aging enzyme TOR pathway by excess food consumption--but not by the consumption of just any food: Animal proteins not only stimulate the cancer-promoting hormone insulin growth factor-1 but also provide high amounts of leucine, which stimulates TOR activation and appears to contribute to the burning out of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, contributing to type 2 diabetes. So, it's not just the high fat and added sugars that are implicated; critical attention must be paid to the daily intake of animal proteins as well.

According to a study, "[i]n general, lower leucine levels are only reached by restriction of animal proteins." To reach the leucine intake provided by dairy or meat, we'd have to eat 9 pounds of cabbage or 100 apples to take an extreme example. That just exemplifies the extreme differences in leucine amounts provided by a more standard diet in comparison with a more plant-based diet.

I reviewed the role endocrine-disrupting industrial pollutants in the food supply may play in a three-part video series: Fish and Diabetes, Diabetes and Dioxins, and Pollutants in Salmon and Our Own Fat. Clearly, the standard America diet and lifestyle contribute to the epidemic of diabetes and obesity, but the contribution of these industrial pollutants can no longer be ignored. We now have experimental evidence that exposure to industrial toxins alone induces weight gain and insulin resistance, and, therefore, may be an underappreciated cause of obesity and diabetes. Consider what's happening to our infants: Obesity in a six-month-old is obviously not related to diet or lack of exercise. They're now exposed to hundreds of chemicals from their moms, straight through the umbilical cord, some of which may be obesogenic (that is, obesity-generating).

The millions of pounds of chemicals and heavy metals released every year into our environment should make us all stop and think about how we live and the choices we make every day in the foods we eat. A 2014 review of the evidence on pollutants and diabetes noted that we can be exposed through toxic spills, but "most of the human exposure nowadays is from the ingestion of contaminated food as a result of bioaccumulation up the food chain. The main source (around 95%) of [persistent pollutant] intake is through dietary intake of animal fats."


For more on the information mentioned here, see the following videos that take a closer look at these major topics:

AGEs: Glycotoxins, Avoiding a Sugary Grave, and Reducing Glycotoxin Intake to Prevent Alzheimer's.

TOR: Why Do We Age?, Caloric Restriction vs. Animal Protein Restriction, Prevent Cancer From Going on TOR, and Saving Lives By Treating Acne With Diet

Viruses: Infectobesity: Adenovirus 36 and Childhood Obesity

Poultry workers: Poultry Exposure and Neurological Disease, Poultry Exposure Tied to Liver and Pancreatic Cancer, and Eating Outside Our Kingdom

Industrial pollutants: Obesity-Causing Pollutants in Food, Fish and Diabetes, Diabetes and Dioxins, and Pollutants in Salmon and Our Own Fat

The link between meat and diabetes may also be due to a lack of sufficient protective components of plants in the diet, which is discussed in my videos How May Plants Protect Against Diabetes?, Plant-Based Diets for Diabetes, Plant-Based Diets and Diabetes, and How Not to Die from Diabetes.

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Original Link

How Animal Proteins May Trigger Autoimmune Disease

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Although slaughterhouse workers with the most poultry exposure appear to suffer the greatest excess mortality (see Poultry Exposure Tied to Liver and Pancreatic Cancer), increased risk of death from cancer is also found in other slaughterplant workers. This research goes back decades and shows higher cancer rates in butchers, slaughterhouse workers, meat cutters, and those working in meat processing plants.

The increased risk for meat industry workers in developing and dying from cancer "may be due to animal-to-human viruses or antigenic stimulation through chronic exposure to animal protein." Cancer-causing virus exposure could also help explain why those who eat meat have higher cancer rates. There's even a retrovirus associated with cancerous fish tumors, which has been speculated as the cause for increased cancer rates in American seafood workers.

Growing up on a livestock farm is associated with higher rates of blood-borne cancer, lymphomas and leukemia. Worst, though, is growing up on a poultry farm, which is consistent with chicken consumption being most closely tied to these cancers. Eating a quarter of a chicken breast daily is associated with a doubling or tripling of risk for these cancers (see EPIC Findings on Lymphoma). Growing up on a farm raising only plant crops, however, is not associated with blood-borne cancers.

What about growing up with dogs and cats? See Pets & Human Lymphoma and Are Cats or Dogs More Protective for Children's Health? You still probably shouldn't eat them, though (see Foodborne Rabies).

Researchers are finally able to start connecting the dots. High levels of antibodies to avian leucosis/sarcoma viruses and reticuloendotheliosis viruses in poultry workers provide evidence of infectious exposure to these cancer-causing poultry viruses. The highest levels were found not in the eviscerators, or gut-pullers, or those that hang the live birds, but among the line workers that just cut up the final product.

In an attempt to narrow down which diseases were associated with which meat, researchers tried separating out those in pig slaughtering and pork processing. "One of the primary sources of concern in using pig organs and tissues as transplants in humans is the fear of introducing zoonotic infections" from animals. We're concerned about what's called PERV transmission, the pig-to-human transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses, raising theoretical concerns about cancer, immunological, and neurological disorders. However, we don't need to get a pig transplant to be exposed. PERVs are also found in blood, so people exposed to pig blood may be exposed to the virus.

The main finding unique to the pork study (profiled in my video Eating Outside Our Kingdom), which was not found in beef and sheep processing, was the significant excess of deaths "from senile conditions such as Alzheimer's disease." It reminds me of all those poor pork brain extraction workers. You think your job is bad? How would you like to work at the "head-table"? Well, that doesn't sound so bad until you learn it's where, through the "unbridled use of compressed air in the pursuit of maximum yield of soft tissue," they remove the brains of severed swine heads.

In one study, researchers noted that as the line speeds increased, "the workers reported being unable to place the skulls completely on the brain removal device before triggering the compressed air, causing greater splatter of brain material." The aerosolized "mist of brain" is suspected to be the cause of dozens of cases of inflammatory neurological disease in workers who started with symptoms as mild as pain, tingling, and difficulty walking, and ended up so bad that doctors had to put them in a coma for six weeks because of unrelenting seizures.

At first researchers thought it was a brain parasite, but now it's known to be an auto-immune attack triggered by the exposure to aerosolized brain. A similar mechanism has been blamed for meat proteins triggering inflammatory arthritis in people eating meat. By eating fellow animals, we are exposed not only to fellow animal diseases, but to animal tissues that our body may mistake as our own. This may be one advantage to eating a more plant-based diet. By eating outside of the animal kingdom--dipping into the plant or mushroom kingdoms for supper--not only do we not have to worry about getting something like Dutch elm disease, but we can be reassured by the fact that never has an "auto-immune polyradiculoneuropathy" been blamed on a head... of lettuce.

For more on foodborne illnesses one can contract from fellow animals, see, for example:

Probably the strangest example of this whole concept is the Neu5Gc story. A 7-part video series worth checking out:

  1. Cancer as an Autoimmune Disease
  2. Clonal Selection Theory of Immunity
  3. Clonal Deletion Theory of Immunity
  4. The Inflammatory Meat Molecule Neu5Gc
  5. How Tumors Use Meat to Grow: Xeno-Autoantibodies
  6. Nonhuman Molecules Lining Our Arteries
  7. Meat May Exceed Daily Allowance of Irony

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death and More Than an Apple a Day.

Image Credit: vgm8383 / Flickr

Original Link

Handling Poultry Tied to Liver/Pancreatic Cancers

NF-July1 Poultry Exposure Tied to Liver and Pancreas Cancer.jpg

Thousands of Americans continue to die from asbestos exposure decades after many uses were banned since the cancers can take years to show up. We are now in the so-called "third wave" of asbestos-related disease. The first wave was in the asbestos miners, which started in the 1920s. The second phase was in the workers--the ship-builders and construction workers that used the stuff in the '30s, '40s, and '50s.

Now, as buildings "constructed with asbestos over the past six decades begin to age and deteriorate," not only are workers at risk, but "potential also exists for serious environmental exposure to asbestos among residents, tenants and users of these buildings, such as school children, office workers, maintenance workers, and the general public."

"The Centers for Disease Control, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have projected that over the next 30 years approximately 1,000 cases of mesothelioma and lung cancer will occur among persons in the United States exposed to asbestos in school buildings as school children."

To see if something is carcinogenic, we study those who have the most exposure. That's how we learned about the potential cancer-causing dangers of asbestos, and that's how we're learning about the potential cancer-causing dangers of poultry viruses. For years I've talked about the excess mortality in poultry workers associated with these wart-causing chicken cancer viruses that may be transmitted to those in the general population handling fresh or frozen chicken (See Wart Cancer Viruses in Food). Last year I talked about the largest study at the time "confirming the findings of three other studies to date that workers in poultry slaughtering and processing plants have increased risk of dying from certain cancers," that also added penis cancer to the risks linked to poultry exposure (See Poultry and Penis Cancer). That was looking at 20,000 poultry workers. Well, we have yet another study, now looking at 30,000.

The purpose of the study, profiled in my video, Poultry Tied to Liver and Pancreatic Cancer, was to test the hypothesis that exposure to poultry cancer-causing viruses that widely occurs occupationally in poultry workers--not to mention the general population--may be associated with increased risks of deaths from liver and pancreatic cancers. They found that those who slaughter chickens have about nine times the odds of both pancreatic cancer and liver cancer.

Just to put this in context, the most carefully studied risk factor for pancreatic cancer, one of our deadliest cancers, is cigarette smoking. Even if we smoke for more than 50 years, though, we "only" about double our odds of pancreatic cancer. Those who slaughter poultry appear to have nearly nine times the odds.

For liver cancer the most well-known and studied cause is alcohol. Those who consume more than four drinks a day have triple the odds of liver cancer. As with pancreatic cancer, poultry slaughtering appears to increase one's odds of getting liver cancer nine-fold. Thus, the cancer-causing viruses in poultry may explain the increasing risk of death from liver and pancreatic cancers.

There are diseases unique to the meat industry like the newly described "salami brusher's disease" that affects those whose job it is to wire brush off the white mold that naturally grows on salami for eight hours a day, but most diseases suffered by meat workers are more universal. The reason the connection between asbestos and cancer was so easy to nail down is that asbestos caused a particularly unusual cancer, which was virtually unknown until there was widespread asbestos mining and industrial use. The pancreatic cancer one might get from handling chicken, however, is the same pancreatic cancer one might get smoking cigarettes, so it's more difficult to tease out a cause-and-effect-relationship. Bottom line: despite the extremely high risks of deadly cancers, don't expect an asbestos-type ban on Kentucky Fried Chicken anytime soon.

I've addressed this topic before. See:

It's ironic that the meat industry wants to add viruses to meat (Viral Meat Spray) to combat fecal bacterial contamination. I'd take that over their other bright idea any day, though (Maggot Meat Spray).

A human wart virus, HPV, can be combated with green tea (Treating Genital Warts with Green Tea), as well as by plant-based diets in general (Why Might Vegetarians Have Less HPV?).

Although workers with the most poultry exposure appear to suffer the greatest excess mortality, increased deaths from cancer are also found in other slaughterhouse workers. More on that in Eating Outside Our Kingdom.

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death and More Than an Apple a Day.

Image Credit: Peter Cooper / Flickr

Original Link