Sushi Worm Parasite

Sushi Worm Parasite.jpeg

There was a report recently of a woman in San Francisco suffering from gnathostomiasis. I had learned about the disease while I was in medical school, but never actually saw a case. Evidently, it's now on the rise. Clinically, the disease commonly presents as "migratory cutaneous swelling" (bumps on the skin that move around). Why? Because there's a worm under there that migrates through the tissues under the skin and causes recurring episodes of migratory swelling or creeping eruptions. The worm's head has rings of little hooks that allow it to burrow through tissue. There is no effective treatment, other than removal of the worm. Since humans are basically dead-end hosts for the larva, they can't develop into mature worms. The symptoms patients experience are due to the organism wandering throughout the body (see Migratory Skin Worms from Sushi).

In addition to burrowing under our skin, it can also crawl into our eyeballs. The 42-year-old woman is described as having a four-year history of migratory swellings on her face, then a little bleeding from the eyelid... and we know where this is going. No problem, though! We can make a little cut, stick in some forceps, locate the worm, and then just pull the sucker right out of the eyeball. If you have any pimples on your face that move around, better to have your doctor grab them before they start swimming around in your eyes.

By far the most serious manifestation is when they get into your brain. As the worm migrates along the nerves, the patient can experience excruciating pain. The condition can lead to paralysis, bleeding in the brain, and finally death. However, in non-cerebral disease, it's the worms that die, though it may take about 12 years.

How do the worms get into our brain, causing so-called neurognathostomiasis? Gnathostoma worms are highly invasive parasites. After you leave the sushi bar, the larvae can penetrate the wall of your intestine. They can then enter the brain through the base of the skull, crawling along the spinal nerves and vessels. They start out in the nerve roots, enter the spinal cord, and then can climb up into the brain. The worm isn't poisonous or anything; it's just the migration of the worm through the body that causes direct mechanical injury because of tearing of nerve tissues.

The bottom line: This diagnosis should be considered in patients who present with nonspecific little lumps and bumps, especially when there is a history of frequent consumption of raw fish.

Thankfully, most raw foodists stick to plants and thereby avoid scenarios like this: A 21-year-old woman experienced acute, severe pain in her mouth immediately after swallowing a raw squid. It seems consuming a squid with "sperm bags and an active ejaculatory apparatus" can result in the "unintended ejection of the sperm bag" and injury to the oral cavity. The researchers conclude that eating raw food, especially living organisms, can be risky. Though some living organisms (plants!) may be substantially less risky than others.

This is like my Tongue Worm in Human Eye or Cheese Mites and Maggots videos. Extremely rare, but extremely fascinating (to me at least!).

There is one parasitic infection that is much more common and a major cause of disability worldwide,though, neurocysticercosis:

I think the only other sushi videos I have are Fecal Contamination of Sushi and Allergenic Fish Worms, though the nori seaweed is good for you (Which Seaweed Is Most Protective Against Breast Cancer? and Avoiding Iodine Deficiency).

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: Sally Plank

Original Link

Sushi Worm Parasite

Sushi Worm Parasite.jpeg

There was a report recently of a woman in San Francisco suffering from gnathostomiasis. I had learned about the disease while I was in medical school, but never actually saw a case. Evidently, it's now on the rise. Clinically, the disease commonly presents as "migratory cutaneous swelling" (bumps on the skin that move around). Why? Because there's a worm under there that migrates through the tissues under the skin and causes recurring episodes of migratory swelling or creeping eruptions. The worm's head has rings of little hooks that allow it to burrow through tissue. There is no effective treatment, other than removal of the worm. Since humans are basically dead-end hosts for the larva, they can't develop into mature worms. The symptoms patients experience are due to the organism wandering throughout the body (see Migratory Skin Worms from Sushi).

In addition to burrowing under our skin, it can also crawl into our eyeballs. The 42-year-old woman is described as having a four-year history of migratory swellings on her face, then a little bleeding from the eyelid... and we know where this is going. No problem, though! We can make a little cut, stick in some forceps, locate the worm, and then just pull the sucker right out of the eyeball. If you have any pimples on your face that move around, better to have your doctor grab them before they start swimming around in your eyes.

By far the most serious manifestation is when they get into your brain. As the worm migrates along the nerves, the patient can experience excruciating pain. The condition can lead to paralysis, bleeding in the brain, and finally death. However, in non-cerebral disease, it's the worms that die, though it may take about 12 years.

How do the worms get into our brain, causing so-called neurognathostomiasis? Gnathostoma worms are highly invasive parasites. After you leave the sushi bar, the larvae can penetrate the wall of your intestine. They can then enter the brain through the base of the skull, crawling along the spinal nerves and vessels. They start out in the nerve roots, enter the spinal cord, and then can climb up into the brain. The worm isn't poisonous or anything; it's just the migration of the worm through the body that causes direct mechanical injury because of tearing of nerve tissues.

The bottom line: This diagnosis should be considered in patients who present with nonspecific little lumps and bumps, especially when there is a history of frequent consumption of raw fish.

Thankfully, most raw foodists stick to plants and thereby avoid scenarios like this: A 21-year-old woman experienced acute, severe pain in her mouth immediately after swallowing a raw squid. It seems consuming a squid with "sperm bags and an active ejaculatory apparatus" can result in the "unintended ejection of the sperm bag" and injury to the oral cavity. The researchers conclude that eating raw food, especially living organisms, can be risky. Though some living organisms (plants!) may be substantially less risky than others.

This is like my Tongue Worm in Human Eye or Cheese Mites and Maggots videos. Extremely rare, but extremely fascinating (to me at least!).

There is one parasitic infection that is much more common and a major cause of disability worldwide,though, neurocysticercosis:

I think the only other sushi videos I have are Fecal Contamination of Sushi and Allergenic Fish Worms, though the nori seaweed is good for you (Which Seaweed Is Most Protective Against Breast Cancer? and Avoiding Iodine Deficiency).

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: Sally Plank

Original Link

Sushi Worm Parasite

Sushi Worm Parasite.jpeg

There was a report recently of a woman in San Francisco suffering from gnathostomiasis. I had learned about the disease while I was in medical school, but never actually saw a case. Evidently, it's now on the rise. Clinically, the disease commonly presents as "migratory cutaneous swelling" (bumps on the skin that move around). Why? Because there's a worm under there that migrates through the tissues under the skin and causes recurring episodes of migratory swelling or creeping eruptions. The worm's head has rings of little hooks that allow it to burrow through tissue. There is no effective treatment, other than removal of the worm. Since humans are basically dead-end hosts for the larva, they can't develop into mature worms. The symptoms patients experience are due to the organism wandering throughout the body (see Migratory Skin Worms from Sushi).

In addition to burrowing under our skin, it can also crawl into our eyeballs. The 42-year-old woman is described as having a four-year history of migratory swellings on her face, then a little bleeding from the eyelid... and we know where this is going. No problem, though! We can make a little cut, stick in some forceps, locate the worm, and then just pull the sucker right out of the eyeball. If you have any pimples on your face that move around, better to have your doctor grab them before they start swimming around in your eyes.

By far the most serious manifestation is when they get into your brain. As the worm migrates along the nerves, the patient can experience excruciating pain. The condition can lead to paralysis, bleeding in the brain, and finally death. However, in non-cerebral disease, it's the worms that die, though it may take about 12 years.

How do the worms get into our brain, causing so-called neurognathostomiasis? Gnathostoma worms are highly invasive parasites. After you leave the sushi bar, the larvae can penetrate the wall of your intestine. They can then enter the brain through the base of the skull, crawling along the spinal nerves and vessels. They start out in the nerve roots, enter the spinal cord, and then can climb up into the brain. The worm isn't poisonous or anything; it's just the migration of the worm through the body that causes direct mechanical injury because of tearing of nerve tissues.

The bottom line: This diagnosis should be considered in patients who present with nonspecific little lumps and bumps, especially when there is a history of frequent consumption of raw fish.

Thankfully, most raw foodists stick to plants and thereby avoid scenarios like this: A 21-year-old woman experienced acute, severe pain in her mouth immediately after swallowing a raw squid. It seems consuming a squid with "sperm bags and an active ejaculatory apparatus" can result in the "unintended ejection of the sperm bag" and injury to the oral cavity. The researchers conclude that eating raw food, especially living organisms, can be risky. Though some living organisms (plants!) may be substantially less risky than others.

This is like my Tongue Worm in Human Eye or Cheese Mites and Maggots videos. Extremely rare, but extremely fascinating (to me at least!).

There is one parasitic infection that is much more common and a major cause of disability worldwide,though, neurocysticercosis:

I think the only other sushi videos I have are Fecal Contamination of Sushi and Allergenic Fish Worms, though the nori seaweed is good for you (Which Seaweed Is Most Protective Against Breast Cancer? and Avoiding Iodine Deficiency).

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: Sally Plank

Original Link

What Is the Cause of ALS?

What Is the Cause of ALS?.jpeg

Lou Gehrig's disease, known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS, strikes healthy, middle-aged people seemingly at random. Of the major neurodegenerative diseases, it has the least hope for treatment and survival. Although mental capabilities stay intact, ALS paralyzes people, often from the outside in, and most patients die within three years when they can no longer breathe or swallow. At any given time, an estimated 30,000 are fighting for their life with it in this country. We each have about a 1 in 400 chance of developing this dreaded disease.

ALS is more common than generally recognized, with an incidence rate now close to that of multiple sclerosis. What causes it? 50 years ago scientists found that the rate of ALS among the indigenous peoples on the island of Guam was 100 times that found in the rest of the world, potentially offering a clue into the cause of the disease. So instead of 1 in 400, in some villages in Guam, 1 in 3 adults died of the disease!

Cycad trees were suspected, since the powdered seeds were a dietary staple of the natives and there were reports of livestock showing neurological disease after eating from it. And indeed, a new neurotoxin was found in the seeds, called BMAA. Maybe that's what was causing such high levels of ALS? But the amount of BMAA in the seeds people ate was so small that it was calculated that people would have to eat a thousand kilograms a day to get a toxic dose--that's around a ton of seeds daily. So, the whole cycad theory was thrown out and the trail went cold.

But then famed neurologist Oliver Sachs and colleagues had an idea. Cycad seeds were not all the natives ate. They also ate fruit bats (also known as flying foxes) who ate Cycad tree seeds. So maybe this is a case of biomagnification up the food chain, as about a "tons" worth of BMAA does accumulate in the flesh of flying foxes.

The final nail in the coffin was the detection of high levels of BMMA in the brains of six out of six native victims of the disease on autopsy, but not in control brains of healthy people that died. So with the final puzzle piece apparently in place, the solution was found to this mysterious cluster on some exotic tropical isle of ALS/PDC, so-called because the form of ALS attacking people in Guam also had signs of Parkinson's disease and dementia, so they called it ALS parkinsonism dementia complex. So when the researchers were choosing a comparison group control brains, they also included two cases of Alzheimer's disease. But these brains had BMAA in their brains too. And not only that, but these were Alzheimer's victims in Canada, on the opposite side of the globe. So the researchers ran more autopsies and found no BMAA in the control brains, but BMAA detected in all the Canadian Alzheimer's victims tested.

Canadians don't eat fruit bats. What was going on? Well, the neurotoxin isn't made by the bat, it's made by the trees, although Canadians don't eat cycad trees either. It turns out that cycad trees don't make the neurotoxin either; it's actually a blue-green algae that grows in the roots of the cycad trees which makes the BMAA that gets in the seeds, which gets in the bats, that finally gets into the people. And it's not just this specific type of blue-green algae, but nearly all types of blue-green algae found all over the world produce BMAA. Up until only about a decade ago we thought this neurotoxin was confined to this one weird tropical tree, but now we know the neurotoxin is created by algae throughout the world; from Europe to the U.S., Australia, the Middle East, and elsewhere.

If these neurotoxin-producing blue-green algae are ubiquitous throughout the world, maybe BMAA is a cause of progressive neurodegenerative diseases including ALS worldwide. Researchers in Miami put it to the test and found BMAA in the brains of Floridians who died from sporadic Alzheimer's disease and ALS, but not in the brains of those that died of a different neurodegenerative disease called Huntington's, which we know is caused by a genetic mutation, not some neurotoxin. They found significant levels of BMAA in 49 out of 50 samples from 12 Alzheimer's patients and 13 ALS patients. The results (shown in the my video ALS: Fishing for Answers) for American Alzheimer's and ALS patients from the Atlantic southeast and from Canadian Alzheimer's patients from the Pacific Northwest suggested that exposure to BMAA was widespread. The same thing was then found in the brains of those dying from Parkinson's disease. You can apparently even pick up more BMAA in the hair of live ALS patients compared to controls.

So is BMAA present in Florida seafood? Yes, in freshwater fish and shellfish, like oysters and bass, and out in the ocean as well. Some of the fish, shrimp, and crabs had levels of BMAA comparable to those found in the fruit bats of Guam.

In the U.S., fish may be the fruit bats.

Maybe the ice bucket challenge should be to not serve seafood in them. See my video Diet and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) for more.

Diet may also play a role in other neurodegenerative disorders:

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: GraphicStock. This image has been modified.

Original Link

What Is the Cause of ALS?

What Is the Cause of ALS?.jpeg

Lou Gehrig's disease, known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS, strikes healthy, middle-aged people seemingly at random. Of the major neurodegenerative diseases, it has the least hope for treatment and survival. Although mental capabilities stay intact, ALS paralyzes people, often from the outside in, and most patients die within three years when they can no longer breathe or swallow. At any given time, an estimated 30,000 are fighting for their life with it in this country. We each have about a 1 in 400 chance of developing this dreaded disease.

ALS is more common than generally recognized, with an incidence rate now close to that of multiple sclerosis. What causes it? 50 years ago scientists found that the rate of ALS among the indigenous peoples on the island of Guam was 100 times that found in the rest of the world, potentially offering a clue into the cause of the disease. So instead of 1 in 400, in some villages in Guam, 1 in 3 adults died of the disease!

Cycad trees were suspected, since the powdered seeds were a dietary staple of the natives and there were reports of livestock showing neurological disease after eating from it. And indeed, a new neurotoxin was found in the seeds, called BMAA. Maybe that's what was causing such high levels of ALS? But the amount of BMAA in the seeds people ate was so small that it was calculated that people would have to eat a thousand kilograms a day to get a toxic dose--that's around a ton of seeds daily. So, the whole cycad theory was thrown out and the trail went cold.

But then famed neurologist Oliver Sachs and colleagues had an idea. Cycad seeds were not all the natives ate. They also ate fruit bats (also known as flying foxes) who ate Cycad tree seeds. So maybe this is a case of biomagnification up the food chain, as about a "tons" worth of BMAA does accumulate in the flesh of flying foxes.

The final nail in the coffin was the detection of high levels of BMMA in the brains of six out of six native victims of the disease on autopsy, but not in control brains of healthy people that died. So with the final puzzle piece apparently in place, the solution was found to this mysterious cluster on some exotic tropical isle of ALS/PDC, so-called because the form of ALS attacking people in Guam also had signs of Parkinson's disease and dementia, so they called it ALS parkinsonism dementia complex. So when the researchers were choosing a comparison group control brains, they also included two cases of Alzheimer's disease. But these brains had BMAA in their brains too. And not only that, but these were Alzheimer's victims in Canada, on the opposite side of the globe. So the researchers ran more autopsies and found no BMAA in the control brains, but BMAA detected in all the Canadian Alzheimer's victims tested.

Canadians don't eat fruit bats. What was going on? Well, the neurotoxin isn't made by the bat, it's made by the trees, although Canadians don't eat cycad trees either. It turns out that cycad trees don't make the neurotoxin either; it's actually a blue-green algae that grows in the roots of the cycad trees which makes the BMAA that gets in the seeds, which gets in the bats, that finally gets into the people. And it's not just this specific type of blue-green algae, but nearly all types of blue-green algae found all over the world produce BMAA. Up until only about a decade ago we thought this neurotoxin was confined to this one weird tropical tree, but now we know the neurotoxin is created by algae throughout the world; from Europe to the U.S., Australia, the Middle East, and elsewhere.

If these neurotoxin-producing blue-green algae are ubiquitous throughout the world, maybe BMAA is a cause of progressive neurodegenerative diseases including ALS worldwide. Researchers in Miami put it to the test and found BMAA in the brains of Floridians who died from sporadic Alzheimer's disease and ALS, but not in the brains of those that died of a different neurodegenerative disease called Huntington's, which we know is caused by a genetic mutation, not some neurotoxin. They found significant levels of BMAA in 49 out of 50 samples from 12 Alzheimer's patients and 13 ALS patients. The results (shown in the my video ALS: Fishing for Answers) for American Alzheimer's and ALS patients from the Atlantic southeast and from Canadian Alzheimer's patients from the Pacific Northwest suggested that exposure to BMAA was widespread. The same thing was then found in the brains of those dying from Parkinson's disease. You can apparently even pick up more BMAA in the hair of live ALS patients compared to controls.

So is BMAA present in Florida seafood? Yes, in freshwater fish and shellfish, like oysters and bass, and out in the ocean as well. Some of the fish, shrimp, and crabs had levels of BMAA comparable to those found in the fruit bats of Guam.

In the U.S., fish may be the fruit bats.

Maybe the ice bucket challenge should be to not serve seafood in them. See my video Diet and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) for more.

Diet may also play a role in other neurodegenerative disorders:

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: GraphicStock. This image has been modified.

Original Link

Do Dietary Toxins Contribute to Hand Tremors?

NF-Nov26 Essential Tremor and Diet.jpg

Essential tremor, affecting 1 in 25 adults over 40 and up to 1 in 5 of those in their 90s, is one of the most common neurological diseases. In addition to the potentially debilitating hand tremor, there can be other neuropsychiatric manifestations, including difficulty walking and various levels of cognitive impairment.

Might beta-carboline neurotoxins play a role in essential tremor? Harmane is one of the most potent of the tremor-producing neurotoxins. Expose people to harmane, and they develop tremors; take it away, and the tremors disappear. What if we're exposed long-term? A recent study at Columbia University, highlighted in my video, Essential Tremor and Diet, found that those with essential tremor have much higher levels of this toxin in their bloodstream compared to those without tremor. Furthermore, the higher the harmane levels, the worse the tremor. The highest levels are found in those who have both essential tremor and cancer, suggesting harmane may be playing a role in both diseases.

How did folks get exposed to these chemicals? Primarily through meat: beef, pork, fish, and especially chicken. So if this potent, tremor-producing neurotoxin is concentrated in cooked muscle foods, is meat consumption associated with a higher risk of essential tremor? Another Columbia University study found that men who ate the most meat had 21 times the odds of essential tremor. To put that in context, if we go back to the original studies on smoking and lung cancer, we see that smoking was only linked to about 14 times the odds, not 21.

Blood levels of this neurotoxin may shoot up within five minutes of eating meat. Five minutes? It's not even digested by then. This rapid uptake is indicative of significant absorption directly through the mouth straight into the bloodstream, bypassing the stomach and, most importantly, bypassing the detoxifying enzymes of the liver. This may lead to higher exposure levels in peripheral organs, like the brain.

Due to its high fat solubility, harmane accumulates in brain tissue, and, using a fancy brain scan called "proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging," higher harmane levels have been linked to greater metabolic dysfunction in the brains of essential tremor sufferers.

Harmane is also found in certain heated plants, like tobacco. A broiled chicken breast has about 13 micrograms of harmane, and cigarettes average about one microgram, so a half pack of cigarettes could expose us to almost as much of this neurotoxin as a serving of chicken. Harman is created when tobacco is burned, and also when coffee beans are roasted. However, coffee intake has not been tied to increased risk (and neither has tobacco for that matter), so it may be something else in meat that's to blame for the 2,000 percent increase in odds for this disabling brain disease.

I also have a few videos about the other major tremor condition, Parkinson's Disease: Preventing Parkinson's Disease with Diet and Treating Parkinson's Disease with Diet

Other compounds created in cooked meats may also have implications for cancer risk:

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, From Table to Able, and Food as Medicine.

Image Credit: Gennaro D'Orio / Flickr

Original Link