Does Rye Bread Protect Against Cancer?

Sept 14 Rye Bread copy.jpeg

Previously, I've explored the beneficial effects of flaxseeds on prostate cancer (Flaxseeds vs. Prostate Cancer), as well as breast cancer prevention and survival (Flaxseeds & Breast Cancer Prevention and Breast Cancer Survival & Lignan Intake). The cancer-fighting effect of flaxseeds is thought to be because of the lignans, which are cancer-fighting plant compounds found in red wine, whole grains, greens (cruciferous vegetables), and especially sesame seeds and flaxseeds, the most concentrated source on Earth. But this is based on per unit weight. People eat a lot more grains than seeds. Of the grains people eat, the highest concentration of lignans is found in rye. So, can rye intake decrease the risk of cancer? Theoretically yes, but unlike flaxseeds, it's never been directly put to the test... until now.

In my video Does Rye Bread Protect Against Cancer?, I discuss the evidence that does exist. If you measure the levels of lignans in the bloodstream of women living in a region where they eat lots of rye, the odds of breast cancer in women with the highest levels do seem to be just half that of women with the lowest levels. But lignans are also found in tea and berries, so we couldn't be sure where the protection is coming from. To get around this, researchers decided to measure alkylresorcinol metabolites, a class of phytonutrients relatively unique to whole grains.

Researchers collected urine from women with breast cancer and women without, and the women with breast cancer had significantly lower levels compared to those without. This suggests that women at risk for breast cancer consume significantly lower amounts of whole grains like rye. But if we follow older women in their 50s through 60s, the intake of whole grain products was not associated with risk of breast cancer. A similar result was found in older men for prostate cancer. Is it just too late at that point?

We know from data on dairy that diet in our early life may be important in the development of prostate cancer, particularly around puberty when the prostate grows and matures. If you look at what men were drinking in adolescence, daily milk consumption appeared to triple their risk of advanced prostate cancer later in life. (Learn more about milk and prostate cancer in my video Prostate Cancer and Organic Milk vs. Almond Milk.) So, researchers looked at daily rye bread consumption during adolescence.

Those who consumed rye bread daily as kids did appear to only have half the odds of advanced prostate cancer. This is consistent with immigrant studies suggesting that the first two decades of life may be most important for setting the pattern for cancer development in later life. These findings are certainly important for how we should feed our kids, but if we're already middle-aged, is it too late to change course? To answer this question, researchers in Sweden put it to the test.

Researchers took men with prostate cancer and split them into two groups. One group got lots of rye bread, while the other got lots of high-fiber, but low-lignan, wheat bread. There's been some indirect evidence that rye may be active against prostate cancer--like lower cancer rates in regions with high rye consumption--but it had never been directly investigated... until this study. Biopsies were taken from the subjects' tumors before and after three weeks of bread eating, and the number of cancer cells that were dying off were counted. Though there was no change in the cancer cell clearance of the control bread group, there was a 180% increase in the number of cancer cells being killed off in the rye group. A follow-up study lasting 6 weeks found a 14% decrease in PSA levels, a cancer marker suggesting a shrinkage of the tumor.

The researchers note they used very high rye bread intakes, and it remains to be tested if more normal intake levels would have effects that are of clinical importance. As a sadly typical American, my lack of intimate familiarity of the metric system did not flag the "485 grams" of rye bread a day as far out of the ordinary, but that translates to 15 slices! Rather than eating a loaf a day, the same amount of lignans can be found in a single teaspoon of ground flaxseeds.


I've created several videos on flaxseeds for both breast cancer prevention and treatment, including Flaxseeds & Breast Cancer Prevention, Breast Cancer Survival and Lignan Intake, Flaxseeds & Breast Cancer Survival Epidemiological Evidence, and Flaxseeds & Breast Cancer Survival: Clinical Evidence.

What's more, flaxseeds may help with cyclical breast pain (Flaxseeds for Breast Pain), prostate cancer (Flaxseed vs. Prostate Cancer), diabetes (Flaxseeds vs. Diabetes), and hypertension (Flaxseeds for Hypertension).

And if you're wondering Which Are Better: Chia Seeds or Flaxseeds?, get the answer in the video!

The wonders of whole grains are also discussed in Whole Grains May Work as Well as Drugs, Can Oatmeal Reverse Heart Disease?, and Can Oatmeal Help Fatty Liver Disease?.

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Original Link

Does Rye Bread Protect Against Cancer?

Sept 14 Rye Bread copy.jpeg

Previously, I've explored the beneficial effects of flaxseeds on prostate cancer (Flaxseeds vs. Prostate Cancer), as well as breast cancer prevention and survival (Flaxseeds & Breast Cancer Prevention and Breast Cancer Survival & Lignan Intake). The cancer-fighting effect of flaxseeds is thought to be because of the lignans, which are cancer-fighting plant compounds found in red wine, whole grains, greens (cruciferous vegetables), and especially sesame seeds and flaxseeds, the most concentrated source on Earth. But this is based on per unit weight. People eat a lot more grains than seeds. Of the grains people eat, the highest concentration of lignans is found in rye. So, can rye intake decrease the risk of cancer? Theoretically yes, but unlike flaxseeds, it's never been directly put to the test... until now.

In my video Does Rye Bread Protect Against Cancer?, I discuss the evidence that does exist. If you measure the levels of lignans in the bloodstream of women living in a region where they eat lots of rye, the odds of breast cancer in women with the highest levels do seem to be just half that of women with the lowest levels. But lignans are also found in tea and berries, so we couldn't be sure where the protection is coming from. To get around this, researchers decided to measure alkylresorcinol metabolites, a class of phytonutrients relatively unique to whole grains.

Researchers collected urine from women with breast cancer and women without, and the women with breast cancer had significantly lower levels compared to those without. This suggests that women at risk for breast cancer consume significantly lower amounts of whole grains like rye. But if we follow older women in their 50s through 60s, the intake of whole grain products was not associated with risk of breast cancer. A similar result was found in older men for prostate cancer. Is it just too late at that point?

We know from data on dairy that diet in our early life may be important in the development of prostate cancer, particularly around puberty when the prostate grows and matures. If you look at what men were drinking in adolescence, daily milk consumption appeared to triple their risk of advanced prostate cancer later in life. (Learn more about milk and prostate cancer in my video Prostate Cancer and Organic Milk vs. Almond Milk.) So, researchers looked at daily rye bread consumption during adolescence.

Those who consumed rye bread daily as kids did appear to only have half the odds of advanced prostate cancer. This is consistent with immigrant studies suggesting that the first two decades of life may be most important for setting the pattern for cancer development in later life. These findings are certainly important for how we should feed our kids, but if we're already middle-aged, is it too late to change course? To answer this question, researchers in Sweden put it to the test.

Researchers took men with prostate cancer and split them into two groups. One group got lots of rye bread, while the other got lots of high-fiber, but low-lignan, wheat bread. There's been some indirect evidence that rye may be active against prostate cancer--like lower cancer rates in regions with high rye consumption--but it had never been directly investigated... until this study. Biopsies were taken from the subjects' tumors before and after three weeks of bread eating, and the number of cancer cells that were dying off were counted. Though there was no change in the cancer cell clearance of the control bread group, there was a 180% increase in the number of cancer cells being killed off in the rye group. A follow-up study lasting 6 weeks found a 14% decrease in PSA levels, a cancer marker suggesting a shrinkage of the tumor.

The researchers note they used very high rye bread intakes, and it remains to be tested if more normal intake levels would have effects that are of clinical importance. As a sadly typical American, my lack of intimate familiarity of the metric system did not flag the "485 grams" of rye bread a day as far out of the ordinary, but that translates to 15 slices! Rather than eating a loaf a day, the same amount of lignans can be found in a single teaspoon of ground flaxseeds.


I've created several videos on flaxseeds for both breast cancer prevention and treatment, including Flaxseeds & Breast Cancer Prevention, Breast Cancer Survival and Lignan Intake, Flaxseeds & Breast Cancer Survival Epidemiological Evidence, and Flaxseeds & Breast Cancer Survival: Clinical Evidence.

What's more, flaxseeds may help with cyclical breast pain (Flaxseeds for Breast Pain), prostate cancer (Flaxseed vs. Prostate Cancer), diabetes (Flaxseeds vs. Diabetes), and hypertension (Flaxseeds for Hypertension).

And if you're wondering Which Are Better: Chia Seeds or Flaxseeds?, get the answer in the video!

The wonders of whole grains are also discussed in Whole Grains May Work as Well as Drugs, Can Oatmeal Reverse Heart Disease?, and Can Oatmeal Help Fatty Liver Disease?.

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Original Link

The Best Diet for Rheumatoid Arthritis

The Best Diet for Rheumatoid Arthritis.jpeg

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease affecting millions. It is characterized by persistent pain, stiffness, and progressive joint destruction leading to crippling deformities, particularly in the hands and feet. What can we do to prevent and treat it?

In my video Why Do Plant-Based Diets Help Rheumatoid Arthritis?, I show a famous 13-month randomized controlled trial of plant-based diets for rheumatoid arthritis where patients were put on a vegan diet for three and a half months and then switched to an egg-free lactovegetarian diet for the remainder of the study. Compared to the control group (who didn't change their diet at all), the plant-based group experienced significant improvements starting within weeks. Their morning stiffness improved within the first month, cutting the number of hours they suffered from joint stiffness in half. Their pain level dropped from 5 out of 10 down to less than 3 out of 10. Disability levels dropped, and subjects reported feeling better; they had greater grip strength, fewer tender joints, less tenderness per joint, and less swelling. They also had a drop in inflammatory markers in their blood, such as sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and white blood cell count. As a bonus, they lost about 13 pounds and kept most of that weight off throughout the year.

What does diet have to do with joint disease?

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease, in which our own body attacks the lining of our joints. There's also a different autoimmune disease called rheumatic fever, in which our body attacks our heart. Why would it do that? It appears to be a matter of friendly fire.

Rheumatic fever is caused by strep throat, which is itself caused by a bacterium that has a protein that looks an awful lot like a protein in our heart. When our immune system attacks the strep bacteria, it also attacks our heart valves, triggering an autoimmune attack by "molecular mimicry." The protein on the strep bacteria is mimicking a protein in our heart, so our body gets confused and attacks both. That's why it's critical to treat strep throat early to prevent our heart from getting caught in the crossfire.

Researchers figured that rheumatoid arthritis might be triggered by an infection as well. A clue to where to start looking was the fact that women seem to get it three times more frequently than men. What type of infection do women get more than men? Urinary tract infections (UTIs). So researchers started testing the urine of rheumatoid arthritis sufferers and, lo and behold, found a bacterium called Proteus mirabilis. Not enough to cause symptoms of a UTI, but enough to trigger an immune response. And indeed, there's a molecule in the bacterium that looks an awful lot like one of the molecules in our joints.

The theory is that anti-Proteus antibodies against the bacterial molecule may inadvertently damage our own joint tissues, leading eventually to joint destruction. Therefore, interventions to remove this bacteria from the bodies of patients, with consequent reduction of antibodies against the organism, should lead to a decrease in inflammation.

As we saw in my video Avoiding Chicken to Avoid Bladder Infections, urinary tract infections originate from the fecal flora. The bacteria crawl up from the rectum into the bladder. How might we change the bugs in our colons? By changing our diet.

Some of the first studies published more than 20 years ago to fundamentally shift people's gut flora were done using raw vegan diets, figuring that's about as fundamental a shift from the standard Western diet as possible. Indeed, within days researchers could significantly change subjects' gut flora. When researchers put rheumatoid arthritis sufferers on that kind of diet, they experienced relief, and the greatest improvements were linked to greatest changes in gut flora. The diet was considered so intolerable, though, that half the patients couldn't take it and dropped out, perhaps because they were trying to feed people things like "buckwheat-beetroot cutlets" buttered with a spread made out of almonds and fermented cucumber juice.

Thankfully, regular vegetarian and vegan diets work too, changing the intestinal flora and improving rheumatoid arthritis. However, we didn't specifically have confirmation that plant-based diets brought down anti-Proteus antibodies until 2014. Subjects that responded to the plant-based diet showed a significant drop in anti-Proteus mirabilis antibodies compared to the control group. Maybe it just dropped immune responses across the board? No, antibody levels against other bugs remained the same, so the assumption is that the plant-based diet reduced urinary or gut levels of the bacteria.

A shift from an omnivorous to a vegetarian diet has a profound influence on the composition of urine as well. For example, those eating plant-based had higher levels of lignans in their urine. Up until now, it was thought that they only protected people from getting cancer, but we now know lignans can also have antimicrobial properties. Perhaps they help clear Proteus mirabilis from the system. Either way, these data suggest a new type of therapy for the management of rheumatoid arthritis: anti-Proteus measures including plant-based diets.


I have to admit I had never even heard of Proteus mirabilis. That's why I love doing work--I learn as much as you do!

I explored another unconventional theory as to why plant-based diets are so successful in treating inflammatory arthritis in Potassium and Autoimmune Disease.

There's another foodborne bacteria implicated in human disease, the EXPEC in chicken leading to urinary tract infections--another game-changer: Avoiding Chicken To Avoid Bladder Infections.

I have a bunch of videos on gut flora--the microbiome. They include:

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: Sally Plank / Flickr. This image has been modified.

Original Link

The Best Diet for Rheumatoid Arthritis

The Best Diet for Rheumatoid Arthritis.jpeg

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease affecting millions. It is characterized by persistent pain, stiffness, and progressive joint destruction leading to crippling deformities, particularly in the hands and feet. What can we do to prevent and treat it?

In my video Why Do Plant-Based Diets Help Rheumatoid Arthritis?, I show a famous 13-month randomized controlled trial of plant-based diets for rheumatoid arthritis where patients were put on a vegan diet for three and a half months and then switched to an egg-free lactovegetarian diet for the remainder of the study. Compared to the control group (who didn't change their diet at all), the plant-based group experienced significant improvements starting within weeks. Their morning stiffness improved within the first month, cutting the number of hours they suffered from joint stiffness in half. Their pain level dropped from 5 out of 10 down to less than 3 out of 10. Disability levels dropped, and subjects reported feeling better; they had greater grip strength, fewer tender joints, less tenderness per joint, and less swelling. They also had a drop in inflammatory markers in their blood, such as sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and white blood cell count. As a bonus, they lost about 13 pounds and kept most of that weight off throughout the year.

What does diet have to do with joint disease?

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease, in which our own body attacks the lining of our joints. There's also a different autoimmune disease called rheumatic fever, in which our body attacks our heart. Why would it do that? It appears to be a matter of friendly fire.

Rheumatic fever is caused by strep throat, which is itself caused by a bacterium that has a protein that looks an awful lot like a protein in our heart. When our immune system attacks the strep bacteria, it also attacks our heart valves, triggering an autoimmune attack by "molecular mimicry." The protein on the strep bacteria is mimicking a protein in our heart, so our body gets confused and attacks both. That's why it's critical to treat strep throat early to prevent our heart from getting caught in the crossfire.

Researchers figured that rheumatoid arthritis might be triggered by an infection as well. A clue to where to start looking was the fact that women seem to get it three times more frequently than men. What type of infection do women get more than men? Urinary tract infections (UTIs). So researchers started testing the urine of rheumatoid arthritis sufferers and, lo and behold, found a bacterium called Proteus mirabilis. Not enough to cause symptoms of a UTI, but enough to trigger an immune response. And indeed, there's a molecule in the bacterium that looks an awful lot like one of the molecules in our joints.

The theory is that anti-Proteus antibodies against the bacterial molecule may inadvertently damage our own joint tissues, leading eventually to joint destruction. Therefore, interventions to remove this bacteria from the bodies of patients, with consequent reduction of antibodies against the organism, should lead to a decrease in inflammation.

As we saw in my video Avoiding Chicken to Avoid Bladder Infections, urinary tract infections originate from the fecal flora. The bacteria crawl up from the rectum into the bladder. How might we change the bugs in our colons? By changing our diet.

Some of the first studies published more than 20 years ago to fundamentally shift people's gut flora were done using raw vegan diets, figuring that's about as fundamental a shift from the standard Western diet as possible. Indeed, within days researchers could significantly change subjects' gut flora. When researchers put rheumatoid arthritis sufferers on that kind of diet, they experienced relief, and the greatest improvements were linked to greatest changes in gut flora. The diet was considered so intolerable, though, that half the patients couldn't take it and dropped out, perhaps because they were trying to feed people things like "buckwheat-beetroot cutlets" buttered with a spread made out of almonds and fermented cucumber juice.

Thankfully, regular vegetarian and vegan diets work too, changing the intestinal flora and improving rheumatoid arthritis. However, we didn't specifically have confirmation that plant-based diets brought down anti-Proteus antibodies until 2014. Subjects that responded to the plant-based diet showed a significant drop in anti-Proteus mirabilis antibodies compared to the control group. Maybe it just dropped immune responses across the board? No, antibody levels against other bugs remained the same, so the assumption is that the plant-based diet reduced urinary or gut levels of the bacteria.

A shift from an omnivorous to a vegetarian diet has a profound influence on the composition of urine as well. For example, those eating plant-based had higher levels of lignans in their urine. Up until now, it was thought that they only protected people from getting cancer, but we now know lignans can also have antimicrobial properties. Perhaps they help clear Proteus mirabilis from the system. Either way, these data suggest a new type of therapy for the management of rheumatoid arthritis: anti-Proteus measures including plant-based diets.


I have to admit I had never even heard of Proteus mirabilis. That's why I love doing work--I learn as much as you do!

I explored another unconventional theory as to why plant-based diets are so successful in treating inflammatory arthritis in Potassium and Autoimmune Disease.

There's another foodborne bacteria implicated in human disease, the EXPEC in chicken leading to urinary tract infections--another game-changer: Avoiding Chicken To Avoid Bladder Infections.

I have a bunch of videos on gut flora--the microbiome. They include:

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: Sally Plank / Flickr. This image has been modified.

Original Link

Preventing Breast Cancer with Flax Seeds

NF-May24 Can Flax Seeds Help Prevent Breast Cancer?.jpeg

I've previously discussed the role of dietary lignans in the reduction of breast cancer risk and improvement in breast cancer survival, based on studies that showed that women with breast cancer who ate the most lignans appeared to live longer (Flaxseeds & Breast Cancer Survival: Epidemiological Evidence and Flaxseeds & Breast Cancer Survival: Clinical Evidence). However, lignans are found throughout the plant kingdom--in seeds, whole grains, vegetables, fruits, berries--so how do we know lignans aren't merely a marker for the intake of unrefined plant foods? For example, those who eat lots of plants--vegetarians--have about eight times the lignan intake than omnivores.

In a petri dish, lignans have been shown to both have direct anticancer growth activity against human breast cancer cells and to prevent cancer cell migration. But it wasn't until 2005 that it was put to the test in people. Researchers from the University of Toronto conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial (as seen in my video, Can Flax Seeds Help Prevent Breast Cancer?) of flaxseeds, the world's most concentrated source of lignans in breast cancer patients. The researchers found that flax appears to have the potential to reduce human breast tumor growth in just a matter of weeks. Therefore, I started recommending ground flax seeds to breast cancer patients.

Can lignans also help prevent breast cancer in the first place? High lignan intake is associated with reduced breast cancer risk, but again lignan intake may just be saying an indicator of high plant food intake in general. So researchers from the University of Kansas gave women at high risk for breast cancer a teaspoon of ground flaxseeds a day for a year, and found on average a drop in precancerous changes in the breast.

What about women who regularly eat flax seeds? Outside of an experimental setting, there just weren't a lot of women eating flax seeds regularly to study--until now. Matching 3,000 women with breast cancer to 3,000 women without, a study published in Cancer Causes and Control found that consumption of flaxseed (and of flax bread) was associated with a 20-30 percent reduction in breast cancer risk. The researchers note that, as flaxseeds are packed with lignans, only a small daily serving of flaxseed is required to attain the level of lignan intake associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk. Researchers concluded: "As it appears that most women do not consume flaxseed and that small amounts may be associated with reduced breast cancer risk, interventions to increase the prevalence of flaxseed consumption might be considered."

The latest review summarizes the association between flax and decreased risk of breast cancer, better mental health, and lower mortality among breast cancer patients. The only other study of flax and brain health I'm aware of was an exploration of 100 commonly used drugs and supplements on cognition in older adults, which found that flax is one of the few things that appears to help.

How else may flaxseeds aid in preventing and treating breast cancer? There's an inflammatory molecule called interleukin-1, which may help tumors feed, grow, and invade. Our bodies therefore produce an interkeukin-1 receptor antagonist, binding to the IL-1 receptor and blocking the action of IL-1. The activity of this protective inhibitor can be boosted with the drug tamoxifen--or by eating flax seed. In premenopausal women, the proinflammatory profile of interleukin-1 can be counteracted by a dietary addition of a few spoonfuls of ground flax. One month of flax may be able to increase the anti-inflammatory inhibitor levels by over 50 percent, better even than the drug.

Yes, having one's ovaries removed may reduce breast cancer risk as much as 60 percent, but at the cost of severe side-effects. The drug tamoxifen may reduce the incidence of breast cancer by more than 40 percent, but may induce other severe side effects such as uterine cancer and blood clots. That's why less toxic (even safe!) breast cancer preventive strategies such as dietary modifications need to be developed. These lignan phytoestrogens in flaxseeds may be one successful route given the data showing reduced breast cancer risk and improved overall survival.

Lignans are not a magic bullet to prevent breast cancer--we can't just sprinkle some flax on your bacon cheeseburger--but as a part of a healthy diet and life-style, they might help to reduce breast cancer risk in the general population.

Flaxseeds may also help fight hormone-mediated cancers in men. See Flaxseed vs. Prostate Cancer and Was It the Flaxseed, Fat Restriction, or Both?

What else can these puppies do? See:

I have another 100+ videos on breast cancer if you want to become an expert and help take care of yourself and/or the women in your life. Here's a few recent ones to get you started:

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, From Table to Able, and Food as Medicine.

Image Credit: Alisha Vargas / Flickr

Original Link

Breast Cancer Cells Feed on Cholesterol

NF-Jul14 Cholesterol Feeds Breast Cancer Cells.jpg

One in eight American women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in her lifetime. There are a number of compounds in plant foods that may protect against breast cancer by a variety of mechanisms. I've talked about the benefits of broccoli, flaxseeds, and soy foods before (See Breast Cancer Survival Vegetable, Flaxseeds & Breast Cancer Prevention, and Breast Cancer Survival and Soy) but a recent German study reported something new. The researchers found that sunflower and pumpkin seeds were associated with reduced breast cancer risk. They initially chalked the association up to the lignans in the seeds (See Breast Cancer Survival and Lignan Intake), but their lignan lead didn't pan out. Maybe it's the phytosterols found concentrated in seeds? (See Optimal Phytosterol Source).

There is evidence that phytosterols may be anticancer nutrients and play a role in reducing breast cancer risk. I thought phytosterols just lowered cholesterol? (See How Phytosterols Lower Cholesterol) What does cancer have to do with cholesterol?

Increasing evidence demonstrates the role that cholesterol may play in the development and progression of breast cancer. Cancer feeds on cholesterol. Transformed cells take up LDL, so-called "bad" cholesterol, and it's capable of stimulating the growth of human breast cancer cells in a petri dish.

The ability to accumulate fat and cholesterol may enable cancer cells to take advantage of people eating high fat and high cholesterol diets and at least partially explain the benefit of a low-fat diet on lowering human breast cancer recurrence. Although the data has been mixed, the largest study to date (highlighted in my video, Cholesterol Feeds Breast Cancer Cells) found a 17% increased breast cancer risk in women who had a total cholesterol over 240 compared to women whose cholesterol was under 160. However, the researchers could not rule out that there may be something else in cholesterol-raising foods that's increasing breast cancer risk.

Tumors suck up so much cholesterol that LDL has been considered a vehicle for delivering antitumor drugs to cancer cells. Since cancer feeds on cholesterol, maybe we could stuff some chemo into it like a Trojan horse poison pill?

The uptake of LDL into tumors may be why people's cholesterol levels drop low after they get cancer--the tumor is eating it up. In fact, patient survival may be lowest when cholesterol uptake is highest. "High LDL receptor content in breast cancer tissue seems to indicate a poor prognosis, [suggesting] that breast tumors rich in LDL receptors may grow rapidly [in the body]." We've known about this for decades. You can tell that wass an old study because, when it was published in the '80s, only 1 in 11 American women got breast cancer.

If cholesterol increases breast cancer risk, what about the use of cholesterol-lowering drugs? See Statin Cholesterol Drugs and Invasive Breast Cancer.

More videos on broccoli and soy's protective effects against breast cancer:

Some I didn't mention include:

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, and From Table to Able.

Image Credit: Andrew Bennett / Flickr

Original Link

Pumpkin Seed Butter Cups with Raspberries by Talia Fuhrman

Talia Fuhrman recently published her first book, Love Your Body, which I was honored to write the foreword for. It is a wonderful, inspiring book about reclaiming your love of your body by nourishing it with health-promoting foods, support system and a healthy attitude. You can order your copy of Love Your Body here or …

Original Link

Flax and Breast Cancer Survival

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of flaxseeds in breast cancer patients found that flaxseeds appear to have the potential to reduce tumor growth in just a matter of weeks. Scientists believe this is due to a class of phytonutrients known as lignans, which are present in flaxseeds at levels up to 800 times other plant foods.

Lignans can be thought of as the Western equivalent of the isoflavone phytoestrogens found in soy foods popular in traditional Asian diets, as they share many purported anti-cancer mechanisms. Since soy food consumption is associated with both preventing breast cancer and prolonging breast cancer survival, one might expect the same to be found for lignans. In Flaxseeds & Breast Cancer Prevention I covered the population-based, in-vitro, and clinical evidence supporting prevention, but what about for women already diagnosed with the dreaded disease?

Three studies were recently published that followed a total of thousands of women diagnosed with breast cancer. The first study from New York reported substantially reduced risks of overall mortality and especially breast cancer mortality associated with higher lignan intakes in postmenopausal women.

The next population study was out of Italy. At surgery, when the women were getting their primary breast tumors removed, they had some blood drawn; within 5 years those who had lower circulating levels of lignans were significantly more likely to die from their cancer coming back than those with more lignans in their bloodstream. The researchers concluded “Lignans might play an important role in reducing all-cause and cancer-specific mortality of the patients operated on for breast cancer.”

The latest and largest study to date was performed in Germany. Postmenopausal patients with breast cancer who had high blood lignan levels appeared to have better survival, and the higher the better. You can see the survival curve in my 3-min video Flaxseeds and Breast Cancer Survival: Epidemiological Evidence. Those who had the most lignans in their blood lived the longest and tended to live the longest disease free.

The population data looked so promising that researchers decided to put lignans to the test by feeding women flaxseeds, the most concentrated source of lignans, to see what would happen.

One of the ways the chemotherapy drug tamoxifen works is by boosting the levels of angiogenesis inhibitors like endostatin, which is a protein the body makes to try to starve tumors of their blood supply. Using a technique called microdialysis, you can stick a catheter into a woman’s breast and suck out some of the fluid bathing the breast cells. If you give women tamoxifen for 6 weeks, the levels of endostatin within the breast tend to go up, and the same thing happens when you instead add three and a half tablespoons of ground flaxseeds to their daily diet. As you can see in my video Flaxseeds and Breast Cancer Survival: Epidemiological Evidence, the flaxseed doesn’t seem as powerful as the chemo, but the results were so exciting that researchers undertook a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of flaxseeds in breast cancer patients.

Breast cancer patients were randomized into either the treatment or the placebo group; either a flaxseed-containing muffin or a control placebo muffin every day between the time of their first biopsy and surgery. Researchers then had tumor samples before and after about a month of flaxseeds or no flaxseeds. Those lucky enough to be randomized into the flax group saw, on average, their tumor cell proliferation go down, cancer cell death go up, and their c-erbB2 score go down (a marker of cancer aggressiveness and potential for forming metastases and spreading).

The researchers concluded: “Dietary flaxseed has the potential to reduce tumor growth in patients with breast cancer. If the therapeutic index seen in this short-term study can be sustained over a long-term period, flaxseed, which is inexpensive and readily available, may be a potential dietary alternative or adjunct to currently used breast cancer drugs.”

For more on breast cancer survival, see:

What about the role of flaxseeds in preventing breast cancer in the first place? See my video Flaxseeds & Breast Cancer Prevention.

A study similar to this was also carried out in prostate cancer patients: Flaxseed vs. Prostate Cancer.

See Anti-Angiogenesis: Cutting Off Tumor Supply Lines for more on the role diet plays in angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels to enable tumors to grow. I also have touched on briefly in Cancer as an Autoimmune Disease and How Tumors Use Meat to Grow: Xeno-Autoantibodies.

This is the final installment of my latest video series on flax. Feel free to check out the role flaxseeds may play in helping diabetes and sensitive skin.

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death and More Than an Apple a Day.

Image credit: TipsTimes / Flickr

 

Original Link

Flax and Breast Cancer Prevention

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Just a teaspoon of ground flaxseeds a day may help protect against breast cancer.

In 1980 a new compound was discovered in human urine. Researchers called it "compound X." Originally it was thought to be a new human hormone, but it was soon identified as part of a large group of fiber-associated compounds widely distributed in edible plants known as lignans. Vegetarians have about twice the level of lignans circulating within their bodies given their greater intake of plant foods. Since population studies suggested that high intake of lignans reduces breast cancer risk, perhaps lignans are one of the reasons those eating plant-based diets have lower cancer rates.

Where are lignans found most in the diet? Seeds, whole grains, vegetables, fruits and berries. Since these are all really healthy foods in their own right, maybe lignan intake is just acting as a surrogate marker for whole plant food intake? (Like the fiber story I detail in Fiber vs. Breast Cancer). Well, in a petri dish lignans do directly suppress the proliferation of breast cancer cells but only after the plant lignans are converted into human lignans by the bacteria in our gut. (More detail in Flax and Fecal Flora).

That’s why we want to use antibiotics judiciously. A few days on antibiotics dramatically drops our body’s ability to make these anticancer compounds from the plants that we eat, and it can take weeks for our gut bacteria to recover. That may be why women with urinary tract infections have been found to be at higher risk for breast cancer. Every time they took a course of antibiotics they may have been stymying their good bacteria’s ability to take full advantage of all the plants they were eating.

In my 4-min video Flaxseeds & Breast Cancer Prevention I profile the National Cancer Institute study that provides the strongest evidence to date that there might indeed be something special about this class of phytonutrients for breast cancer prevention. They took a bunch of young women at high risk for breast cancer (meaning they had a suspicious breast biopsy showing either atypical hyperplasia or carcinoma in situ, or already had breast cancer in the other breast) and gave them a teaspoon of ground flaxseeds every day for a year before getting a repeat needle biopsy to see if there was any change.

Yes, there are lignans in sesame seeds, nuts, whole grains, legumes, certain fruits, and veggies, but they’re most concentrated in flax seeds. They could have instead asked women to eat ten cups of strawberries a day for a year to get teh equivalent amount, but they’d probably get better compliance with just a teaspoon of flax :)

So what happened by the end of the year? The primary end point was the expression of a proliferation biomarker associated with cancer called ki-67. In 9 of the 45 women it went up, pictured in red in the video, but in the other 80% of the women it went down. And, indeed, on average they found less cellular proliferation in their breast tissue and fewer precancerous changes.

For those that don’t like the taste of flaxseeds, sesame seeds are also high in lignans. Even though flaxseeds have significantly more lignans than sesame, you appear to produce about the same amount of lignans from them. This was, however, comparing them whole. When people are fed whole flaxseeds, some may not be chewed up and can pass right through you. So ground flaxseed may be best overall. As I note in the Flaxseeds For Sensitive Skin video, ground flax stays fresh even at room temperature for at least a month.

What if you or a loved one has already been diagnosed with breast cancer? See my follow-up videos:

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death and More Than an Apple a Day.

Image credit: kickthebeat / Flickr

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Flaxseeds for Prostate Cancer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Why is there such a huge disparity in prostate cancer rates around the world? The incidence of malignant prostate cancer is highest in African Americans, some 30 times greater than in Japanese men, and 120 times greater than in Chinese men. The conventional thinking is that this may be due to the higher intake of animal fat and protein in the Western diet, but it could also be the protective phytoestrogens found in plant foods. There are two major types of phytoestrogens: soy isoflavones and lignans.

Researchers have found higher levels of lignans in the prostate fluids of men in countries with relatively low rates of prostate cancer and in vitro studies show lignans can slow the growth of prostate cancer cells in a petri dish, so a pilot study was performed on flaxseed supplementation in men with prostate cancer. Why flaxseeds? Because while lignans are found throughout the plant kingdom, flax has up to 800 times more than any other food.

The research team took a bunch of men with prostate cancer, about a month before they were scheduled for surgery to get their prostates removed, and put them on a relatively low fat diet with three tablespoons a day of ground flax. Though the scientists were skeptical that they would observe any differences in tumor biology in the diet-treated patients in such a short time span, they found significantly lower cancer proliferation rates and significantly higher rates of cancer cell death. That was compared to so-called “historical controls,” meaning compared to the kind of growth one typically sees in their situation, not to an actual randomized control group. A few years later, though, a controlled study was published.

Researchers enrolled men who recently had their prostates biopsied and were scheduled to have repeat biopsies in six months. Then they did the same thing as the previous study: they reduced the fat in their diet and put them on ground flaxseeds to see if it made their repeat biopsy look any different. These were men with what’s called PIN (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia), which is like the prostate equivalent of ductal carcinoma in situ in the breast. That’s why they were getting repeat biopsies–to make sure it wasn’t spreading.

There hadn’t been much research on this kind of prostatic hyperplasia, with only four epidemiologic studies reported at the time. They yielded varying findings, with increased risk associated with higher energy, protein, and animal product intake, and decreased risk related to the consumption of alcohol, fruit, and green and yellow vegetables—in sum, a low-fat, plant-based diet, high in phytoestrogens. The researchers wanted to know if that kind of diet could be used to treat it too.

Watch my 4-min video Flaxseed vs. Prostate Cancer to see what they found. Study subjects experienced a significant drop in PSA levels (a biomarker of prostate cell growth), a drop in cholesterol (what one would expect with a lower fat diet with extra fiber), and most importantly, a significant decrease in the cellular proliferation rate. In fact in two of the men, their PSA levels dropped so much they didn’t even have to go through with the second biopsy!

Slowing the Growth of Cancer is good, but how about Cancer Reversal Through Diet? In other words, if one plant could do that, what about a whole diet full of plants? See my video series that goes from Ex Vivo Cancer Proliferation Bioassay (actually Engineering a Cure) to The Answer to the Pritikin Puzzle.

For benign prostate gland enlargement see Prostate vs. Plants, and Prostate vs. a Plant-Based Diet (with background in Some Prostates Are Larger than Others).

What about for breast cancer? See Breast Cancer Survival and Lignan Intake. More on these wonderful seeds in Flax and Fecal Flora, my smoothies (A Better Breakfast), and the oldie but goodie Just the Flax, Ma’am. What about chia? Find out which is better in Flaxseeds vs. Chia Seeds.

Since the dietary intervention involved both reducing fat intake and flaxseed consumption, how do we know the flax had anything to do with it? Given the composite nature of the intervention—both a lower fat diet and flaxseeds, it was unknown whether the effects could be attributed to flaxseed supplementation, a fat-restricted diet, or both factors working together.  To figure that out you’d have to do a study where you split men into four groups, a control group, a flaxseed only group, a lower-fat only group, and then a flaxseed and lower fat group. And that’s exactly what they did. Find out the results in my follow-up video Was It the Flaxseed, Fat Restriction, or Both?.

That reminds me of the experiment described in Is It the Diet, the Exercise, or Both? in which researchers try to tease out the individual effects of a similar composite treatment—a plant-based diet and walking—on the growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro. They both appeared to help, but diet appeared to be more powerfully protective.

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death and More Than an Apple a Day.

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