Reversal of Chronic Disease Risk Even Late in Life

NF-Oct18 Never too Late to Start Eating Healthier.jpeg

A hundred years ago, the New York Times reported on a rather sophisticated study for the time: 4,600 cases of cancer appearing over a seven year period, suggesting that the increased consumption of animal foods was to blame. A century later, the latest review on the subjects concluded that mortality from all causes put together, ischemic heart disease, circulatory, and cerebrovascular diseases was significantly lower in those eating meat-free diets, in addition to less cancer and diabetes.

I'm surprised they found such significant results given that people in these studies typically didn't stop eating meat until late in life. For example, in the largest study done up until recently, up to a third of subjects ate vegetarian for less than five years, yet they still ended up with lower rates of heart disease whether they were under 60 or over 60, normal weight or overweight, used to smoke or never smoked; those that had stopped eating meat had lower risk, suggesting that decades of higher risk dietary behavior could be reversed within just years of eating healthier.

If you look at countries that switched from eating traditional, more plant-based diets to more Westernized diets, it may take 20 years for cancer rates to shoot up. It takes decades for most tumors to grow. For example, if you look at Asia, their dietary shift was accompanied by a remarkable increase in mortality rates of breast, colon, and prostate cancers. The same thing can be shown with migration studies. Men moving from rural China to the U.S. experience a dramatic increase in cancer risk, but tumors take time to grow.

So it's remarkable to me that after most of a lifetime eating the standard Western diet, one can turn it around and reverse chronic disease risk with a healthier diet, even late in the game... as discussed in my video, Never Too Late to Start Eating Healthier.

So, "should we all start eating vegetarian?" asked an editorial that accompanied the results from the largest study ever published on Americans eating plant-based diets, which found vegetarian diets to be associated with lower all-cause mortality, meaning those who started eating vegetarian live, on average, longer lives. This analysis included so-called semi-vegetarians, who ate meat at least once a month (but no more than once a week), so it's not yet clear how harmful eating meat a few times a month is. What we can all agree on, though, is that we should limit our intake of junk food and animal fat, and eat more fruits and vegetables. Most authorities will also agree that diets should include whole grains, beans, and nuts. Instead of fighting over whose diet is the best, it's time to acknowledge these common features of diets associated with less disease, and instead focus our attention on helping patients avoid the intense commercial pressures to eat otherwise.

How amazing the human body is if we just treat it right! For more on lifestyle medicine, see:

So please don't allow the perfect to become the enemy of the good. Any movement we can make towards improving our diet can help. Though the earlier the better: See Heart Disease Starts in Childhood and Back in Circulation: Sciatica and Cholesterol.

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations--2013: Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, 2014: From Table to Able: Combating Disabling Diseases with Food, 2015: Food as Medicine: Preventing and Treating the Most Dreaded Diseases with Diet, and my latest, 2016: How Not To Die: The Role of Diet in Preventing, Arresting, and Reversing Our Top 15 Killers.

Image Credit: victorpr / 123RF

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Paleo Diet May Undermine Benefit of CrossFit Exercise

NF-Sept6 Paleo Diets May Negate Benefits of Exercise.jpeg

Much of the low-carb and paleo reasoning revolves around insulin. To quote a paleo blogger, "carbohydrates increase insulin, the root of all evil when it comes to dieting and health." So the logic follows that because carbs increase insulin, we should stick mostly to meat, which is fat and protein with no carbs, so no increase in insulin, right?

Wrong.

We've known for half a century that if you give someone just a steak: no carbs, no sugar, no starch; their insulin goes up. Carbs make our insulin go up, but so does protein.

In 1997 an insulin index of foods was published, ranking 38 foods to determine which stimulates higher insulin levels. Researchers compared a large apple and all its sugar, a cup of oatmeal packed with carbs, a cup and a half of white flour pasta, a big bun-less burger with no carbs at all, to half of a salmon fillet. As you can see in the graph in my video Paleo Diets May Negate Benefits of Exercise, the meat produced the highest insulin levels.

Researchers only looked at beef and fish, but subsequent data showed that that there's no significant difference between the insulin spike from beef, chicken, or pork--they're all just as high. Thus, protein and fat rich foods may induce substantial insulin secretion. In fact, meat protein causes as much insulin release as pure sugar.

So, based on the insulin logic, if low-carbers and paleo folks really believed insulin to be the root of all evil, then they would be eating big bowls of spaghetti day in and day out before they would ever consume meat.

They are correct in believing that having hyperinsulinemia, high levels of insulin in the blood like type 2 diabetics have, is not a good thing, and may increase cancer risk. But if low-carb and paleo dieters stuck to their own insulin theory, then they would be out telling everyone to start eating plant-based. Vegetarians have significantly lower insulin levels even at the same weight as omnivores. This is true for ovo-lacto-vegetarians, lacto-vegetarians, and vegans. Meat-eaters have up to 50% higher insulin levels.

Researchers from the University of Memphis put a variety of people on a vegan diet (men, women, younger folks, older folks, skinny and fat) and their insulin levels dropped significantly within just three weeks. And then, just by adding egg whites back to their diet, their insulin production rose 60% within four days.

In a study out of MIT, researchers doubled participants' carbohydrate intake, and their insulin levels went down. Why? Because the researchers weren't feeding people jellybeans and sugar cookies, they were feeding people whole, plant foods, lots of whole grains, beans, fruits, and vegetables.

What if we put someone on a very-low carb diet, like an Atkins diet? Low carb advocates such as Dr. Westman assumed that it would lower insulin levels. Dr. Westman is the author of the new Atkins books, after Dr. Atkins died obese with, according to the medical examiner, a history of heart attack, congestive heart failure, and hypertension. But, Dr. Westman was wrong in his assumption. There are no significant drop in insulin levels on very low-carb diets. Instead, there is a significant rise in LDL cholesterol levels, the number one risk factor for our number one killer, heart disease.

Atkins is an easy target though. No matter how many "new" Atkins diets that come out, it's still old news. What about the paleo diet? The paleo movement gets a lot of things right. They tell people to ditch dairy and doughnuts, eat lots of fruits, nuts, and vegetables, and cut out a lot of processed junk food. But a new study published in the International Journal of Exercise Science is pretty concerning. Researchers took young healthy people, put them on a Paleolithic diet along with a CrossFit-based, high-intensity circuit training exercise program.

If you lose enough weight exercising, you can temporarily drop our cholesterol levels no matter what you eat. You can see that with stomach stapling surgery, tuberculosis, chemotherapy, a cocaine habit, etc. Just losing weight by any means can lower cholesterol, which makes the results of the Paleo/Crossfit study all the more troubling. After ten weeks of hardcore workouts and weight loss, the participants' LDL cholesterol still went up. And it was even worse for those who started out the healthiest. Those starting out with excellent LDL's (under 70), had a 20% elevation in LDL cholesterol, and their HDL dropped. Exercise is supposed to boost our good cholesterol, not lower it.

The paleo diet's deleterious impact on blood fats was not only significant, but substantial enough to counteract the improvements commonly seen with improved fitness and body composition. Exercise is supposed to make things better.

On the other hand, if we put people instead on a plant-based diet and a modest exercise program, mostly just walking-based; within three weeks their bad cholesterol can drop 20% and their insulin levels 30%, despite a 75-80% carbohydrate diet, whereas the paleo diets appeared to "negate the positive effects of exercise."

I touched on paleo diets before in Paleolithic Lessons, and I featured a guest blog on the subject: Will The Real Paleo Diet Please Stand Up?

but my favorite paleo videos are probably The Problem With the Paleo Diet Argument and Lose Two Pounds in One Sitting: Taking the Mioscenic Route.

I wrote a book on low carb diets in general (now available free full-text online) and touched on it in Atkins Diet: Trouble Keeping It Up and Low Carb Diets and Coronary Blood Flow.

And if you're thinking, but what about the size of the cholesterol, small and dense versus large and fluffy? Please see my video Does Cholesterol Size Matter?

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations--2013: Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, 2014: From Table to Able: Combating Disabling Diseases with Food, 2015: Food as Medicine: Preventing and Treating the Most Dreaded Diseases with Diet, and my latest, 2016: How Not To Die: The Role of Diet in Preventing, Arresting, and Reversing Our Top 15 Killers.

Image Credit: Vincent Lit / Flickr

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30 Recipes That Prove Hummus Should Be A Food Group

Hummus

Hummus should be a food group. Why? Because it is perhaps the most versatile vessel of nutritious deliciousness possible. Legumes (beans, lentils, peas, and soy foods) are one of the most important food groups, offering ample fiber and protein (including lysine, an amino acid that may otherwise fall short in a vegan diet). Because I recommend aiming for three servings of legumes a day (one serving equals half a cup), hummus offers an excellent and delicious way to fit it in.

Here are 30 recipes that illustrate how insanely creative a simple bean can be become with a little imagination…

1.  Green Chickpea Hummus by Dreena Burton

Hummus Green Chickpea

2. White Bean and Rosemary Dip from The Vegiterranean Diet via Veg Kitchen

Snacks White Bean Rosemary

3. Cauliflower Hummus by Feasting on Fruit

Hummus Cauliflower

4. Mini Sweet Peppers with Hummus by Jazzy Vegetarian

Hummus Sweet Peppers

5. Carrot Hummus and Quinoa Cumin Crackers (*Omit Oil*) by Lazy Cat Kitchen

Hummus Carrot

6. Baba Ghanoush Hummus by Strength & Sunshine

Hummus Baba Ghanoush

7. Artichoke and White Bean Hummus by Dreena Burton

Hummus Artichoke Bean

8. Oil-Free Barbecue White Bean Hummus by The Vegan 8

Hummus BBQ

9. Jalapeno Hummus by My Plant-Based Family

Hummus Jalapeno

10.  Spicy “Refried” Lentil Dip by Veggies Don’t Bite

Hummus Spicy Refried

11. Vegan Caesar Dressing Dip by Healthy Helper

Hummus Caesar

12. Pumpkin Hummus by VegAnnie

Hummus Pumpkin

13. Quick and Easy Black Bean Dip by The Taste Space

Hummus Black Bean

14. Roasted Carrot White Bean Spread by Veggie Inspired

Hummus Roasted Carrot

15. Cucumber Hummus Dip (Hummus-Tzatziki Fusion) by The Taste Space

Hummus Cucumber

16. Spicy Jalapeno Mint Hummus by Fragrant Vanilla Cake

Hummus Spicy Jalapeno

17. Balsamic Roasted Red Pepper Basil Hummus by Strength & Sunshine

Hummus Balsamic Red Pepper

18. White Bean Cashew Dip by Jazzy Vegetarian

Hummus Cashew White Bean

19. Spiced Sweet Potato Hummus by Dreena Burton

Hummus Spiced Sweet Potato

20. Yellow Split Pea Dip (Greek Fava) by Veggies Don’t Bite

Hummus Split Yellow Pea

21. Roasted Parsnip Hummus Dip by Contentedness Cooking

Hummus Roasted Parsnip

22. Edamame Hummus (*Omit Oil*) by Fried Dandelions

Hummus Edamame

23. Bright Beet Bean Dip (*Omit Oil*) by Two City Vegans

Hummus Beet

24. Avocado Hummus with Whole Grain Chipotle Chips by Fit Cakes

Hummus Avocado

 

25. Moroccan Sweet Potato Hummus by Delicious Everyday

Hummus Moroccan Sweet Potato

26. Spicy Hummus by Veggie Inspired

Hummus Spicy

27. Quick Vegan Portobello

[Hummus] Pizza by Veggie Primer

Hummus Portobello Pizza

28. Pistachio Hummus with Pomegranate by Contentedness Cooking

Hummus Pistachio

29. Mom’s Famous Whipped Hummus by Veggies Don’t Bite

Hummus Whipped

30. Deep Dish Pizza with Hummus Pizza Sauce and a Kale Crust by Rainbow Nourishments

Hummus Deep Dish Pizza

The post 30 Recipes That Prove Hummus Should Be A Food Group appeared first on Plant Based Dietitian.

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Treating Pancreatic Cancer with Turmeric Curcumin

NF-May26 Turmeric Curcumin and Pancreatic Cancer.jpeg

Pancreatic cancer is among the most aggressive forms of human cancer, characterized by a very high mortality rate. It represents the fourth leading cause of cancer death in United States, killing 32,000 people annually. With a five-year survival rate of only three percent and a median survival rate of less than six months, pancreatic cancer carries one of the poorest prognoses. The diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is one of the worst things a doctor ever has to tell a patient. The only FDA-approved therapies for it, Gemcitabine and Erlotinib, produce objective responses in less than ten percent of patients, while causing severe side-effects in the majority. There is a desperate need for new options.

Clinical research to test new treatments is split into phases. Phase I trials are just to make sure the treatment is safe, to see how much you can give before it becomes toxic. Curcumin, the natural yellow pigment in the spice turmeric has passed a number of those. In fact, there was so little toxicity, the dosing appeared limited only by the number of pills patients were willing to swallow.

Phase II trials are conducted to see if the drug actually has an effect. Curcumin did, in 2 of the 21 patients that were evaluated. One patient had a 73 percent tumor reduction, but the effect was short-lived. One lesion remained small, but a curcumin-resistant tumor clone emerged. The other patient, who had a stable disease for over 18 months, showed slow improvement over a year. The only time that patient's cancer markers bumped up was during a brief three-week stint where the curcumin was stopped.

So curcumin does seem to help some patients with pancreatic cancer, and most importantly, there appears to be little downside. No curcumin-related toxic effects were observed in up to doses of eight grams per day. What happens after eight grams? We don't know because no one was willing to take that many pills. The patients were willing to go on one of the nastiest chemotherapy regimens on the planet, but didn't want to be inconvenienced with swallowing a lot of capsules.

The only surefire way to beat pancreatic cancer is to prevent it in the first place. In 2010 I profiled a study conducted by the National Institutes of Health, the largest such study in history, which found that dietary fat of animal origin was associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk.

Which animal fat is the worst? The second largest study (highlighted in my video: Turmeric Curcumin and Pancreatic Cancer) has since chimed in to help answer that question. Researchers found that poultry was the worst, with 72 percent increased risk of pancreatic cancer associated with every 50 grams of daily poultry consumption. Fifty grams is just about a quarter of a chicken breast. The reason white meat came out worse than red may be because of the cooked meat carcinogens in chicken, the heterocyclic amines that build up in grilled and baked chicken. These mutagenic chemicals have been associated with a doubling of pancreatic cancer risk (See Estrogenic Cooked Meat Carcinogens).

Meat has been associated with significantly increased risk, whereas fake meat is associated with significantly less risk. Those who eat plant-based meats like veggie burgers or veggie dogs three or more times a week had less than half the risk of fatal pancreatic cancer. Legumes and dried fruit appear to be similarly protective.

My grandfather died of pancreatic cancer. By the time the first symptom arose, a dull ache in his gut, it was too late. That's why we need to work on preventing it.

I previously touched on pancreatic cancer prevention in Poultry Exposure Tied to Liver and Pancreatic Cancer and attempts at pancreatic cancer treatment in Gerson Therapy for Cancer and Gerson-style Therapy vs. Chemotherapy.

For more on the heterocyclic amine cooked meat carcinogens:

I've done a bunch of videos on turmeric and various cancers:

And more on this amazing spice (and more to come):

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, From Table to Able, and Food as Medicine.

Image Credit: Sara Marlowe / Flickr

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Are Sprouted Lentils Healthier Than Canned Lentils?

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Beans, chickpeas, split peas and lentils are packed with nutrients and play a role in the prevention of chronic disease, but most can't be eaten raw. Some can be sprouted, though. Boiling is the most common cooking method, which is used for canned beans. Which is healthier, though, cooked or sprouted?

The easiest way to compare healthfulness is to measure nutrient levels--such as the anthocyanin pigments that make kidney beans so pretty--thought to account for some of beans' protective benefits against chronic disease. Sprouted beans have more of some anthocyanins, but less than others. We find this same pattern across the board with the other phenolic phytonutrients: sprouted beans have more of some, less of others. Because the positive effects of these compounds may be related to their antioxidant capacity, we can compare the overall antioxidant power of boiled versus sprouted beans. In that case, boiled appears to have a marginal edge.

Ideally, though, rather than merely comparing concentrations of phytochemicals, we'd measure physiological effects. For example, we might look at the effect of boiled versus sprouted beans against cancer cell growth. That's exactly what researchers did. In my video Cooked Beans or Sprouted Beans?, you can see the concentrations of bean extract needed to cut the breast cancer growth rate in half in a petri dish. Boiled beans do about 40 times better than raw beans--the same cancer growth inhibition at just a fraction of the concentration. Sprouted beans do about the same.

We can't eat most beans raw, but I wanted to include them to show you a fascinating phenomenon. No amount of raw bean extract appears to totally stop the growth of breast cancer cells, but just small amounts of cooked or sprouted beans can. We find the same thing with killing off cancer. No amount of raw bean extract can fully kill off breast cancer cells, but both boiled and sprouted beans can.

Similar results were found for melanoma cells, a type of malignant skin cancer. Processing the beans--either cooking or sprouting--boosted anticancer activity in vitro. However, against kidney cancer, raw and boiled worked, but sprouted didn't at all.

There has also been interest in brain protection. Given that elderly persons who report always eating legumes may be significantly less likely to experience cognitive decline, a group of Chinese researchers decided to compare the protective effects of boiled versus sprouted beans on astrocytes.

Astrocytes are the most abundant type of cell in our brain. They are star-shaped cells that keep our brain running smoothly. Should they become damaged, though, they may play an important role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Lou Gehrig's disease, Alzheimer's, or Parkinson's. So if we're thinking clearly, we should thank our lucky stars.

To see if beans help protect astrocytes from damage, we'd have to first make sure bean extracts wouldn't cause any damage. Cooked beans don't seem to hurt cells at all, and sprouted beans seem to even help them grow a little. If we add an oxidative chemical to the cells, we can kill off about a quarter of them. However, if we add that chemical along with some boiled bean extract, the astrocytes were partially protected at higher doses. Sprouted bean extract didn't appear to offer significant benefit.

What's the takeaway? As far as I'm concerned, we should eat beans in whichever way will get us to eat the most of them.

I do love my lentil sprouts, one of the healthiest snacks on the planet (along with kale chips). I can grow my own in just 2 to 3 days. But using canned beans I can get similar nutrition in about 2 to 3 seconds.

Sprouting is so much fun, though! I've got a bunch of videos on broccoli sprouts, for example: Biggest Nutrition Bang for Your Buck.

But again, whichever way we like them we should eat them. Why? See:

Mostly I just used canned. See Canned Beans or Cooked Beans?

Other videos on practical prep tips include:

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, From Table to Able, and Food as Medicine.

Image Credit: Veganbaking.net / Flickr

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Around the Globe in 50 Delicious Main Dishes

Historically and globally, a plant-based diet has been traditional and standard, primarily based on accessibility. It was not until the last half of the 20th Century that meat and processed foods had the chance to take center stage due to innovative farming practices and industrialization of food production…much to the demise of our health. Now, because it …

Original Link

Around the Globe in 50 Delicious Main Dishes

Historically and globally, a plant-based diet has been traditional and standard, primarily based on accessibility. It was not until the last half of the 20th Century that meat and processed foods had the chance to take center stage due to innovative farming practices and industrialization of food production…much to the demise of our health. Now, because it …

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Redefine Salad with These 40 Revolutionary Recipes

No, salads are not boring. Remember when a salad was the iconic small side dish of iceberg lettuce, topped with a few shredded carrots and a dull, soggy tomato wedge and smothered in dressing? Blah! Now THAT is boring. Yet, a rainbow in a dish is nature’s best medicine, so keeping it exciting is everything for enjoyable and …

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30 Sensational Oil-Free Soups, Stews, and Chilis

Whether the weather inspires a warm, cozy dish or you are simply in the mood for a delicious way to consume a hefty dose of nutrition, nothing beats a soup, stew, or chili. Typically based on two of nature’s healthiest food groups–vegetables and legumes–there is no limit to the delectable combinations you can create…all while taking in disease-fighting phytonutrients, …

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Hummus for a Healthy Heart

NF-Mar3 Beans Beans They're Good For Your Heart.jpeg

I've talked previously about the anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects of various phytonutrients in beans, but beans have protective effects on the cardiovascular system as well. As one academic review suggested, plant-specific compounds can have a remarkable impact on the health care system and may provide therapeutic health benefits, including the prevention and treatment of diseases and disorders. Plants have antioxidant effects, anti-inflammatory effects, protect our livers, lower cholesterol and blood pressure, and help prevent aging, diabetes, osteoporosis, DNA damage, heart disease and other disorders. Those without legumes in their daily diet, for example, may be at quadruple the odds of suffering high blood pressure.

Legumes such as chickpeas have been used to treat high blood pressure and diabetes for thousands of years. And they can also lower cholesterol levels. Researchers placed people in Northern India on high fat diets to raise their cholesterol levels up to that of the Western world (up around 206 mg/dL) and swapped in chickpeas for some of the grains they were eating. In five months, their cholesterol levels dropped to about 160, almost to the target of around 150. Cholesterol was reduced more than 15 percent in most of the subjects. In a randomized crossover trial, highlighted in my video, Beans, Beans, They're Good for Your Heart, two servings a day of lentils, chickpeas, beans, or split peas cut cholesterol levels so much that many participants moved below the range for which statin drugs are typically prescribed.

In the India study, although the subjects' cholesterol levels were comparable to the Western world at the start of the treatment with chickpeas, before the studym the participants were eating a low-fat diet. So low that their cholesterol levels started out at 123, well within the safe zone. Only after packing their diets with saturated fat were the researchers able to boost their cholesterol up to typical American levels, which could then be ameliorated by adding chickpeas. So it would be better if they just ate healthy in the first place. Or even better, healthy with hummus: a healthy diet with lots of legumes.


Beans dips like hummus are among my favorite go-to snacks. I like to dip snap peas and red bell pepper slices in them. I'd love to hear everyone's favorite recipe. You show me yours and I'll show you mine :)

Canned Beans or Cooked Beans? Click the link to find out!

Beans can help us live longer (Increased Lifespan from Beans), control our blood sugars (Beans and the Second Meal Effect), and help prevent and treat diabetes (Preventing Prediabetes By Eating More and Diabetics Should Take Their Pulses).

What about the purported "anti-nutrient" phytates in beans? You mean the Phytates for the Prevention of Cancer, the Phytates for Rehabilitating Cancer Cells, and the Phytates for the Treatment of Cancer? Phytate-containing foods may also help protect our bones (Phytates for the Prevention of Osteoporosis).

Why not just take cholesterol pills every day for the rest of our life? See my videos Statin Muscle Toxicity and Statin Cholesterol Drugs and Invasive Breast Cancer.

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, From Table to Able, and Food as Medicine.

Image Credit: homami / Flickr

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