Lipotoxicity: How Saturated Fat Raises Blood Sugar

NF-Nov24 Lipotoxicity How Saturated Fat Raises Blood Sugar copy.jpg

The reason those eating plant-based diets have less fat buildup in their muscle cells and less insulin resistance may be because saturated fats appear to impair blood sugar control the most.

The association between fat and insulin resistance is now widely accepted. Insulin resistance is due to so-called ectopic fat accumulation, the buildup of fat in places it's not supposed to be, like within our muscle cells. But not all fats affect the muscles the same. The type of fat, saturated vs. unsaturated, is critical. Saturated fats like palmitate, found mostly in meat, dairy and eggs, cause insulin resistance, but oleate, found mostly in nuts, olives and avocados may actually improve insulin sensitivity.

What makes saturated fat bad? Saturated fat causes more toxic breakdown products and mitochondrial dysfunction, and increases oxidative stress, free radicals and inflammation, establishing a vicious cycle of events in which saturated fat induces free radicals, causes dysfunction in the little power plants within our muscle cells (mitochondria), which then causes an increase in free radical production and an impairment of insulin signaling. I explain this in my video Lipotoxicity: How Saturated Fat Raises Blood Sugar.

Fat cells filled with saturated fat activate an inflammatory response to a far greater extent. This increased inflammation from saturated fat has been demonstrated to raise insulin resistance through free radical production. Saturated fat also has been shown to have a direct effect on skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Accumulation of saturated fat increases the amount of diacyl-glycerol in the muscles, which has been demonstrated to have a potent effect on muscle insulin resistance. You can take muscle biopsies from people and correlate the saturated fat buildup in their muscles with insulin resistance.

While monounsaturated fats are more likely to be detoxified or safely stored away, saturated fats create those toxic breakdown products like ceramide that causes lipotoxicity. Lipo- meaning fat, as in liposuction. This fat toxicity in our muscles is a well-known concept in the explanation of trigger for insulin resistance.

I've talked about the role saturated and trans fats contribute to the progression of other diseases, like autoimmune diseases, cancer and heart disease, but they can also cause insulin resistance, the underlying cause of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. In the human diet, saturated fats are derived from animal sources while trans fats originate in meat and milk in addition to partially hydrogenated and refined vegetable oils.

That's why experimentally shifting people from animal fats to plant fats can improve insulin sensitivity. In a study done by Swedish researchers, insulin sensitivity was impaired on the diet with added butterfat, but not on the diet with added olive fat.

We know prolonged exposure of our muscles to high levels of fat leads to severe insulin resistance, with saturated fats demonstrated to be the worst, but they don't just lead to inhibition of insulin signaling, the activation of inflammatory pathways and the increase in free radicals, they also cause an alteration in gene expression. This can lead to a suppression of key mitochondrial enzymes like carnitine palmitoyltransferase, which finally solves the mystery of why those eating vegetarian have a 60 percent higher expression of that fat burning enzyme. They're eating less saturated fat.

So do those eating plant-based diets have less fat clogging their muscles and less insulin resistance too? There hasn't been any data available regarding the insulin sensitivity or inside muscle cell fat of those eating vegan or vegetarian... until now. Researchers at the Imperial College of London compared the insulin resistance and muscle fat of vegans versus omnivores. Those eating plant-based diets have the unfair advantage of being much slimmer, so they found omnivores who were as skinny as vegans to see if plant-based diets had a direct benefit, as opposed to indirectly pulling fat out of the muscles by helping people lose weight in general.

They found significantly less fat trapped in the muscle cells of vegans compared to omnivores at the same body weight, better insulin sensitivity, better blood sugar levels, better insulin levels and, excitingly, significantly improved beta-cell function (the cells in the pancreas that make the insulin). They conclude that eating plant-based is not only expected to be cardioprotective, helping prevent our #1 killer, heart disease, but that plant-based diets are beta-cell protective as well, helping also to prevent our seventh leading cause of death, diabetes.

This is the third of a three-part series, starting with What Causes Insulin Resistance? and The Spillover Effect Links Obesity to Diabetes.

Even if saturated fat weren't associated with heart disease, its effects on pancreatic function and insulin resistance in the muscles would be enough to warrant avoiding it. Despite popular press accounts, saturated fat intake remains the primary modifiable determinant of LDL cholesterol, the #1 risk factor for our #1 killer-heart disease. See The Saturated Fat Studies: Buttering Up the Public and The Saturated Fat Studies: Set Up to Fail.

How low should we shoot for in terms of saturated fat intake? As low as possible, according to the U.S. National Academies of Science Institute of Medicine: Trans Fat, Saturated Fat, and Cholesterol: Tolerable Upper Intake of Zero.

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: Andrew Malone / Flickr

Original Link

Lipotoxicity: How Saturated Fat Raises Blood Sugar

NF-Nov24 Lipotoxicity How Saturated Fat Raises Blood Sugar copy.jpg

The reason those eating plant-based diets have less fat buildup in their muscle cells and less insulin resistance may be because saturated fats appear to impair blood sugar control the most.

The association between fat and insulin resistance is now widely accepted. Insulin resistance is due to so-called ectopic fat accumulation, the buildup of fat in places it's not supposed to be, like within our muscle cells. But not all fats affect the muscles the same. The type of fat, saturated vs. unsaturated, is critical. Saturated fats like palmitate, found mostly in meat, dairy and eggs, cause insulin resistance, but oleate, found mostly in nuts, olives and avocados may actually improve insulin sensitivity.

What makes saturated fat bad? Saturated fat causes more toxic breakdown products and mitochondrial dysfunction, and increases oxidative stress, free radicals and inflammation, establishing a vicious cycle of events in which saturated fat induces free radicals, causes dysfunction in the little power plants within our muscle cells (mitochondria), which then causes an increase in free radical production and an impairment of insulin signaling. I explain this in my video Lipotoxicity: How Saturated Fat Raises Blood Sugar.

Fat cells filled with saturated fat activate an inflammatory response to a far greater extent. This increased inflammation from saturated fat has been demonstrated to raise insulin resistance through free radical production. Saturated fat also has been shown to have a direct effect on skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Accumulation of saturated fat increases the amount of diacyl-glycerol in the muscles, which has been demonstrated to have a potent effect on muscle insulin resistance. You can take muscle biopsies from people and correlate the saturated fat buildup in their muscles with insulin resistance.

While monounsaturated fats are more likely to be detoxified or safely stored away, saturated fats create those toxic breakdown products like ceramide that causes lipotoxicity. Lipo- meaning fat, as in liposuction. This fat toxicity in our muscles is a well-known concept in the explanation of trigger for insulin resistance.

I've talked about the role saturated and trans fats contribute to the progression of other diseases, like autoimmune diseases, cancer and heart disease, but they can also cause insulin resistance, the underlying cause of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. In the human diet, saturated fats are derived from animal sources while trans fats originate in meat and milk in addition to partially hydrogenated and refined vegetable oils.

That's why experimentally shifting people from animal fats to plant fats can improve insulin sensitivity. In a study done by Swedish researchers, insulin sensitivity was impaired on the diet with added butterfat, but not on the diet with added olive fat.

We know prolonged exposure of our muscles to high levels of fat leads to severe insulin resistance, with saturated fats demonstrated to be the worst, but they don't just lead to inhibition of insulin signaling, the activation of inflammatory pathways and the increase in free radicals, they also cause an alteration in gene expression. This can lead to a suppression of key mitochondrial enzymes like carnitine palmitoyltransferase, which finally solves the mystery of why those eating vegetarian have a 60 percent higher expression of that fat burning enzyme. They're eating less saturated fat.

So do those eating plant-based diets have less fat clogging their muscles and less insulin resistance too? There hasn't been any data available regarding the insulin sensitivity or inside muscle cell fat of those eating vegan or vegetarian... until now. Researchers at the Imperial College of London compared the insulin resistance and muscle fat of vegans versus omnivores. Those eating plant-based diets have the unfair advantage of being much slimmer, so they found omnivores who were as skinny as vegans to see if plant-based diets had a direct benefit, as opposed to indirectly pulling fat out of the muscles by helping people lose weight in general.

They found significantly less fat trapped in the muscle cells of vegans compared to omnivores at the same body weight, better insulin sensitivity, better blood sugar levels, better insulin levels and, excitingly, significantly improved beta-cell function (the cells in the pancreas that make the insulin). They conclude that eating plant-based is not only expected to be cardioprotective, helping prevent our #1 killer, heart disease, but that plant-based diets are beta-cell protective as well, helping also to prevent our seventh leading cause of death, diabetes.

This is the third of a three-part series, starting with What Causes Insulin Resistance? and The Spillover Effect Links Obesity to Diabetes.

Even if saturated fat weren't associated with heart disease, its effects on pancreatic function and insulin resistance in the muscles would be enough to warrant avoiding it. Despite popular press accounts, saturated fat intake remains the primary modifiable determinant of LDL cholesterol, the #1 risk factor for our #1 killer-heart disease. See The Saturated Fat Studies: Buttering Up the Public and The Saturated Fat Studies: Set Up to Fail.

How low should we shoot for in terms of saturated fat intake? As low as possible, according to the U.S. National Academies of Science Institute of Medicine: Trans Fat, Saturated Fat, and Cholesterol: Tolerable Upper Intake of Zero.

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

Image Credit: Andrew Malone / Flickr

Original Link

How to Get Kids to Eat Their Vegetables

How to Get Kids to Eat Their Vegetables

What happens if we give one group of kids a plate of cookies and the other group the same number of cookies, but cut in half, and tell both groups they can eat as many as they want? Researchers reported that decreasing cookie size led to 25% fewer cookie calories eaten.

The goal of that study was to help counter obesity-promoting eating behaviors facilitated by the availability of large portions of junk food. The findings "suggest that reducing the size of cookies (without altering the total amount of food) decreases children's short-term caloric intake," a dietary strategy for parents to discreetly decrease unhealthy behaviors. But they were using sugar wafers- what's in those things? Partially hydrogenated oil (trans fats). What's so bad about trans fats? See Trans Fat in Meat and Dairy, Trans Fat, Saturated Fat, and Cholesterol: Tolerable Upper Intake of Zero, and Breast Cancer Survival and Trans Fat. No one should be eating those cookies. In fact, I can think of another "dietary strategy" to decrease kid's intake--don't give them any!

Admittedly, this is easier said than done. Even in the 'granola crunchy' San Francisco Bay Area, a proposed ban on junk food suggested by parents and school administrators sent a faction of teachers into an apoplectic fit. In Texas, there was so much parental outrage that they got lawmakers to pass a Safe Cupcake Amendment. The amendment, known as Lauren's Law, ensures that parents and grandparents of schoolchildren celebrating a birthday can bring whatever they want to school.

Fine. What if we just offered fruit in addition to the cupcakes at classroom celebrations? In a study outlined in my video, Tricks to Get Kids to Eat Healthier at School, researchers provided bowls of fresh, cut-up fruit in addition to the party food brought by the parents at two of four kindergarten or preschool celebrations to observe student response. No special effort was made to encourage students to choose the fruit: they just put it out there. Would kids actually eat fruit when there was birthday cake, ice cream, and cheese puffs taking up nearly a whopping third of their daily caloric intake? Yes! On average each kid ate a full fruit serving. Take that, cheesy puffs!

There are entire curricula available now for schools, such as "Veggiecation," where for a whole year classrooms feature a new "veggie of the month," sprinkled with nutrition mantras like "Fiber equals a happy tummy." And they work! "The active engagement of students in tasting and rating vegetable dishes seemed to have contributed to higher consumption of featured vegetables."

One school was able in some cases to double vegetable consumption just by giving them attractive names. Elementary students ate twice the number of carrots if they were called "X-ray Vision Carrots," compared to when they were just "carrots" or generically named "Food of the Day."

How about "Power Punch Broccoli, Silly Dilly Green Beans, or Tiny Tasty Tree Tops?" Selection of broccoli increased by 109.4%, and green beans by 177%. Conclusion: "these studies demonstrate that using an attractive name to describe a healthy food in a cafeteria is robustly effective, persistent, and scalable with little or no money or experience. These names were not carefully crafted, discussed in focus groups, and then pre-tested." They just thought them up out of thin air. And kids were suckered into eating healthier for months by putting out silly little signs. In this school, vegetable intake was up nearly 100%, while in the control school without signs, vegetable consumption started low and actually got worse. So why isn't every single school in the country doing this right now?! Bring it up at your next PTA meeting.

And if we want to get really bold, we can join the nutritious school lunch revolution led by pioneering organizations like the New York Coalition for Healthy School Food (check out their website at www.healthyschoolfood.org).

Whenever I find myself frustrated by half measures, I am forced to remind myself just how SAD the Standard American Diet is. See Nation's Diet in Crisis for a reality check. One of the problems is that parents may not even realize there is a problem (Mothers Overestimate Dietary Quality).

For more healthy eating tricks check out: Tricks to Get Kids to Eat Healthier at Home and Tricks to Get Adults to Eat Healthier.

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death and More Than an Apple a Day.

Image Credit: U.S. Department of Agriculture / Flickr

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Trans Fat in Animal Fat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Trans Fat in Meat and Dairy

Trans fats are bad. They may increase one’s risks of heart disease, sudden death, diabetes—and perhaps even aggression. Trans fat intake has been associated with overt aggressive behavior, impatience, and irritability.

Trans fats are basically found in only one place in nature: animal fat. The food industry, however, found a way to synthetically create these toxic fats by hardening vegetable oil in a process called hydrogenation, which rearranges their atoms to make them behave more like animal fats.

Although most of America’s trans fat intake has traditionally come from processed foods containing partially-hydrogenated oils, a fifth of the trans fats in the American diet used to come from animal products—1.2 grams out of the 5.8 total consumed daily. Now that trans fat labeling has been mandated, however, and places like New York City have banned the use of partially hydrogenated oils, the intake of industrial-produced trans fat is down to about 1.3, so about 50 percent of America’s trans fats come now from animal products.

Which foods naturally have significant amounts of trans fat? According to the official USDA nutrient database, cheese, milk, yogurt, burgers, chicken fat, turkey meat, bologna, and hot dogs contain about 1 to 5 percent trans fats (see the USDA chart in Trans Fat In Meat And Dairy). There are also tiny amounts of trans fats in non-hydrogenated vegetable oils due to steam deodorization or stripping during the refining process.

Is getting a few percent trans fats a problem, though? The most prestigious scientific body in the United States, the National Academies of Science (NAS), concluded that the only safe intake of trans fats is zero. In their report condemning trans fats, they couldn’t even assign a Tolerable Upper Daily Limit of intake because “any incremental increase in trans fatty acid intake increases coronary heart disease risk.” There may also be no safe intake of dietary cholesterol, which underscores the importance of reducing animal product consumption. See my video Trans Fat, Saturated Fat, and Cholesterol: Tolerable Upper Intake of Zero.

There’s been controversy, though, as to whether the trans fats naturally found in animal products are as bad as the synthetic fats in partially hydrogenated junk food. The latest study supports the notion that trans fat intake, irrespective of source—animal or industrial—increases cardiovascular disease risk, especially, it appears, in women.

“Because trans fats are unavoidable on ordinary, non-vegan diets, getting down to zero percent trans fats would require significant changes in patterns of dietary intake,” reads the NAS report. One of the authors, the Director of Harvard’s Cardiovascular Epidemiology Program, famously explained why—despite this—they didn’t recommend a vegan diet: “We can’t tell people to stop eating all meat and all dairy products,” he said. “Well, we could tell people to become vegetarians,” he added. “If we were truly basing this only on science, we would, but it is a bit extreme.”  

Wouldn’t want scientists basing anything on science now would we?

“Nevertheless,” the report concludes, “it is recommended that trans fatty acid consumption be as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet.”

Even if you eat vegan, though, there’s a loophole in labeling regulations that allows foods with a trans fats content of less than 0.5 grams per serving to be listed as having—you guessed it—zero grams of trans fat. This labeling is misguiding the public by allowing foods to be labeled as ”trans fat free” when they are, in fact, not. So to avoid all trans fats, avoid meat and dairy, refined oils, and anything that says partially hydrogenated in the ingredients list, regardless of what it says on the Nutrition Facts label.

More on trans fat can be found in my videos Blocking the First Step of Heart Disease and Breast Cancer Survival and Trans Fat.

While unrefined oils such as extra virgin olive should not contain trans fats, to boost the absorption of carotenoids in your salad why not add olives themselves or whole food sources of fat such as nuts or seeds? Other videos on oils include:

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death and More Than an Apple a Day.

Image credit: PKMousie / Flickr

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