How Turmeric Can Help Combat the Effects of Sitting

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The average American spends most of their waking life sitting down, which is associated with an increased risk of death even among people who go to the gym after work and exercise regularly. Doing lots of sitting may double our risk of diabetes and heart disease while significantly shortening our lifespan, even at the highest levels of physical activity. Sitting six or more hours a day may increase mortality rates even among those running or swimming an hour a day, every day, seven days a week. Why though? I examine this in Turmeric Cucumin vs. Exercise for Artery Function.

One factor may be endothelial dysfunction, the inability of the inner lining of our blood vessels to relax our arteries normally in response to blood flow. Just like our muscles atrophy if we don't use them, when it comes to arterial function, it's 'use it or lose it' as well. Increased blood flow promotes a healthy endothelium. The cells lining our arteries can actually sense the sheer force of the blood flowing past. That flow is what maintains the stability and integrity of the inner lining of our arteries. Without that constant tugging flow, it may help set us up for heart disease.

We actually have some data now suggesting that treadmill desks may improve the health of office workers without affecting work performance, and walking may be preferable to standing in terms of clearing fat from our bloodstream, which can play a role in endothelial dysfunction.

What if our office can't accommodate a standing or walking desk? Within an hour of sitting, blood starts pooling and blood flow starts to stagnate, so the more we can take breaks the better. Preliminary evidence from observational and interventional studies suggests that regular interruptions in sitting time can be beneficial. And it doesn't have to be long. Breaks could be as short as one minute and not necessarily entail exercise, just something like taking out the trash during commercials may be beneficial.

I've talked about the effects of different diets on endothelial function (See Eggs and Arterial Function, Walnuts and Arterial Function, Vinegar and Artery Function, and Dark Chocolate and Artery Function) and how certain foods in particular--nuts and green tea--are beneficial for endothelial health. Recently, researchers tried out curcumin, the yellow pigment in the spice turmeric.

They showed that regular ingestion of curcumin or up to an hour a day of aerobic exercise training significantly improved endothelial function. And the magnitude of improvement in endothelial function was the same. So does that mean we can just be a couch potato as long as we eat curried potatoes? No, the combination of curcumin and exercise appears to work even better than either alone.

I'm on my third treadmill desk motor, after burning out two. The 2nd one lasted 7,000 miles, though. Could have walked back and forth across the country! I do about 17 miles a day. More on treadmill desks in Standing Up for Your Health.

Amazing how much beneficial just simple walking can be: Longer Life Within Walking Distance

More exercise versus diet comparisons in Is it the Diet, the Exercise, or Both? and How Much Exercise to Sustain Weight Loss.

For more on turmeric and exercise see Heart of Gold: Turmeric vs Exercise.

Who Shouldn't Consume Curcumin or Turmeric? See the video! :)

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations--2013: Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, 2014: From Table to Able: Combating Disabling Diseases with Food, 2015: Food as Medicine: Preventing and Treating the Most Dreaded Diseases with Diet, and my latest, 2016: How Not To Die: The Role of Diet in Preventing, Arresting, and Reversing Our Top 15 Killers.

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Treating Pancreatic Cancer with Turmeric Curcumin

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Pancreatic cancer is among the most aggressive forms of human cancer, characterized by a very high mortality rate. It represents the fourth leading cause of cancer death in United States, killing 32,000 people annually. With a five-year survival rate of only three percent and a median survival rate of less than six months, pancreatic cancer carries one of the poorest prognoses. The diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is one of the worst things a doctor ever has to tell a patient. The only FDA-approved therapies for it, Gemcitabine and Erlotinib, produce objective responses in less than ten percent of patients, while causing severe side-effects in the majority. There is a desperate need for new options.

Clinical research to test new treatments is split into phases. Phase I trials are just to make sure the treatment is safe, to see how much you can give before it becomes toxic. Curcumin, the natural yellow pigment in the spice turmeric has passed a number of those. In fact, there was so little toxicity, the dosing appeared limited only by the number of pills patients were willing to swallow.

Phase II trials are conducted to see if the drug actually has an effect. Curcumin did, in 2 of the 21 patients that were evaluated. One patient had a 73 percent tumor reduction, but the effect was short-lived. One lesion remained small, but a curcumin-resistant tumor clone emerged. The other patient, who had a stable disease for over 18 months, showed slow improvement over a year. The only time that patient's cancer markers bumped up was during a brief three-week stint where the curcumin was stopped.

So curcumin does seem to help some patients with pancreatic cancer, and most importantly, there appears to be little downside. No curcumin-related toxic effects were observed in up to doses of eight grams per day. What happens after eight grams? We don't know because no one was willing to take that many pills. The patients were willing to go on one of the nastiest chemotherapy regimens on the planet, but didn't want to be inconvenienced with swallowing a lot of capsules.

The only surefire way to beat pancreatic cancer is to prevent it in the first place. In 2010 I profiled a study conducted by the National Institutes of Health, the largest such study in history, which found that dietary fat of animal origin was associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk.

Which animal fat is the worst? The second largest study (highlighted in my video: Turmeric Curcumin and Pancreatic Cancer) has since chimed in to help answer that question. Researchers found that poultry was the worst, with 72 percent increased risk of pancreatic cancer associated with every 50 grams of daily poultry consumption. Fifty grams is just about a quarter of a chicken breast. The reason white meat came out worse than red may be because of the cooked meat carcinogens in chicken, the heterocyclic amines that build up in grilled and baked chicken. These mutagenic chemicals have been associated with a doubling of pancreatic cancer risk (See Estrogenic Cooked Meat Carcinogens).

Meat has been associated with significantly increased risk, whereas fake meat is associated with significantly less risk. Those who eat plant-based meats like veggie burgers or veggie dogs three or more times a week had less than half the risk of fatal pancreatic cancer. Legumes and dried fruit appear to be similarly protective.

My grandfather died of pancreatic cancer. By the time the first symptom arose, a dull ache in his gut, it was too late. That's why we need to work on preventing it.

I previously touched on pancreatic cancer prevention in Poultry Exposure Tied to Liver and Pancreatic Cancer and attempts at pancreatic cancer treatment in Gerson Therapy for Cancer and Gerson-style Therapy vs. Chemotherapy.

For more on the heterocyclic amine cooked meat carcinogens:

I've done a bunch of videos on turmeric and various cancers:

And more on this amazing spice (and more to come):

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, From Table to Able, and Food as Medicine.

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Can Turmeric Help with Alzheimer’s?

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The spice turmeric may help prevent Alzheimer's disease (See Preventing Alzheimer's with Turmeric), but what about treating Alzheimer's disease with turmeric? An exciting case series was published in 2012 (highlighted in my video, Treating Alzheimer's with Turmeric): three Alzheimer's patients were treated with turmeric, and their symptoms improved.

In case number one, an 83-year-old woman started losing her memory and feeling disoriented. She started having problems taking care of herself, wandering aimlessly and became incontinent. After taking a teaspoon of turmeric per day however, her agitation, apathy, anxiety and irritability were relieved and she had less accidents. Furthermore, she began to laugh again, sing again, and knit again. After taking turmeric for more than a year, she came to recognize her family and now lives a peaceful life without a significant behavioral or psychological symptom of dementia.

Case number two was similar, but with the additional symptoms of hallucinations, delusions and depression, which were relieved by turmeric. She began to recognize her family again and now lives in a peacefully serene manner. And the third case, similar as well, included an improvement in cognition.

Researchers concluded that this was the first demonstration of turmeric as an effective and safe "drug" for the treatment of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in Alzheimer's patients. They call it a drug, but it's just a spice you can walk into any grocery store and buy for a few bucks. They were giving people like a teaspoon a day, which comes out to be about 15 cents.

Two trials using curcumin supplements rather than turmeric, however, failed to show a benefit. Curcumin is just one of hundreds of phytochemicals found in turmeric. Concentrated into pill form at up to 40 times the dose, no evidence of efficacy was found. Why didn't they get the same dramatic results we saw in the three case reports? Well, those three cases may have been total flukes, but on the other hand, turmeric, the whole food, may be greater than the sum of its parts.

There is a long list of compounds that have been isolated from turmeric, and it's possible that each component plays a distinct role in making it useful against Alzheimer's disease. Hence, researchers suggested that a mixture of compounds might better represent turmeric in its medicinal value better than curcumin alone. But why concoct some artificial mixture when Mother Nature already did it for us with turmeric? Because you can't patent the spice. And if you can't patent it, how are you going to charge more than 15 cents?

I've previously addressed the thorny issue of patenting natural plant remedies in my video: Plants as Intellectual Property - Patently Wrong?

The whole-greater-than-the-sum-of-its-parts theme is one that comes up over and over:

What else might the cheap, easily available spice turmeric do? It may help fight arthritis (Turmeric Curcumin and Rheumatoid Arthritis and Turmeric Curcumin and Osteoarthritis) and cancer:

But it's not for everyone: Who Shouldn't Consume Curcumin or Turmeric?

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, From Table to Able, and Food as Medicine.

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Might Turmeric Help Prevent Alzheimer’s?

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There are plenty of anti-inflammatory drugs out there that may reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease, but stomach, liver, and kidney toxicity precludes their widespread use. So maybe using an anti-inflammatory food like the spice, turmeric, found in curry powder, could offer the benefits without the risks? Before even considering putting it to the test, though, one might ask, "Well, do populations that eat a lot of turmeric have a lower prevalence of dementia?" And indeed, those living in rural India who do just that may actually have the lowest reported prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's.

In rural Pennsylvania, the incidence rate of Alzheimer's disease among seniors is 19/1000. Nineteen people in a thousand over age 65 develop Alzheimer's every year in rural Pennsylvania. In rural India, using the same diagnostic criteria, that same rate is three, confirming they have among the lowest reported Alzheimer's rates in the world.

Although the lower prevalence of Alzheimer's in India is generally attributed to the turmeric consumption as a part of curry, and it is assumed that people who use turmeric regularly have a lower incidence of the disease, but let's not just assume. As highlighted in my video, Preventing Alzheimer's with Turmeric, a thousand people were tested, and those who consumed curry at least occasionally did better on simple cognitive tests than those who didn't. Those that ate curry often also had only about half the odds of showing cognitive impairment, after adjusting for a wide variety of potential confounding factors. This suggests that curry consumption may indeed be associated with better cognitive performance.

Of course it probably matters what's being curried--are we talking chicken masala, or chana masala, with chickpeas instead of chicks? It may be no coincidence that the country with among the lowest rates of Alzheimer's also has among the lowest rates of meat consumption, with a significant percentage of Indians eating meat-free and egg-free diets.

Studies have suggested for nearly 20 years now that those who eat meat--red meat or white meat--appear between two to three times more likely to become demented compared to vegetarians. And the longer one eats meat-free, the lower the associated risk of dementia, whether or not you like curry.

There's another spice that may be useful for brain health. See my video Saffron for the Treatment of Alzheimer's. What about coconut oil? See Does Coconut Oil Cure Alzheimer's? In terms of preventing cognitive decline in the first place, check out my video How to Slow Brain Aging By Two Years.

I've raised the issue of plant-based diets and dementia in Alzheimer's Disease: Grain Brain or Meathead?

For more on spices and inflammation, see Which Spices Fight Inflammation? and the follow-up, Spicing Up DNA Protection.

What about treating Alzheimer's disease with the spice turmeric? That's the topic of my video, Treating Alzheimer's with Turmeric.

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, From Table to Able, and Food as Medicine.

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Topical Application of Turmeric Curcumin for Cancer

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In my video, Turmeric Curcumin and Colon Cancer, I talked about a study where researchers showed that, by taking curcumin, the yellow pigment in the spices turmeric and curry powder, those at high risk for colon cancer could cut down on precancerous and even pre-precancerous lesions, in effect reversing cancer progression. Are there other high risk lesions we can try spicing up?

How about giving turmeric extracts to people who just had bladder cancer taken out? Or to those who have an early stage of squamous cell carcinoma skin cancer caused by arsenic exposure, or early stage cervical cancer, or precancerous lesions in the mouth or stomach? Researchers did this, and in about a quarter of the patients, the lesions started to get better. One out of the two bladder cancer survivors, two out of seven patients with precancerous mouth lesions, one out of six patients with precancerous stomach lesions, one out of four early stage cervical cancer cases, and two out of six patients with early stage skin cancer, all without any noticeable side-effects.

One of the reasons turmeric curcumin may work in some cancers better than others, or in some people better than others, is differences in bioavailability. Megadoses were given, yet just a tiny amount ended up in the bloodstream. If we're treating skin cancer, though, why not just put the curcumin directly on the skin?

I've talked about what turmeric compounds can do to cancer cells in a petri dish. In the video, Topical Application of Turmeric Curcumin for Cancer, you can see some before and after pics. Cervical cancer cells are laid to waste as more and more curcumin is added, and normal cells are unharmed. But to make it to the cervix, curcumin must be absorbed (though a vaginal cream has been invented).

A variety of delivery methods have been devised, including oral, intra-abdominal, intramuscular, under-the-skin injections, straight into the veins or the arteries, on the skin, up the bladder, in the nose, breathed like an inhaler, up where the sun don't shine, or straight into the spinal column, bone marrow, the tumor itself, or implanted somehow. Taken orally, some curcumin does actually get into the tissues. We can measure the amount of curcumin absorbed into the wall of the intestine by examining biopsies and surgical specimens taken after a curcumin regimen. It makes sense to take turmeric orally to try to fight colon cancer, but if we have cancer erupting on our skin why not just rub it on directly?

That's what one group of researchers did. They took some turmeric from the store, made a tincture out of it, dried it, put it in Vaseline, and then had cancer patients rub it on their cancer three times a day. What kind of cancer can you get at with a finger? These were folks with cancers of the mouth, breast, skin, vulva, and elsewhere. Isn't breast cancer under the surface? Not always. Advanced breast cancer can ulcerate right through the skin. The subjects were all people with recurrent ulcerating tumors that had failed to respond to surgery, radiation, and chemo. These open cancers can stink, itch, and ooze, and there was nothing else medicine had to offer. So they rubbed some turmeric ointment to see what happened. It produced remarkable relief. A reduction in smell was noted in 90% of the cases, even in extensively ulcerated cases of breast cancer, and a reduction in itching in almost all cases as well. For example, treatment relieved severe itching in two of the vulva cancer patients. Most of the lesions dried up, and in many cases this relief lasted for months, all from just rubbing on the harmless spice turmeric, which the researchers describe as "an indigenous drug ... highly effective in reducing smell, itching and exudate." The effect of this so-called drug is remarkable. And that "drug" is just some edible spice used in curries for centuries.

More on what this golden spice can do in:

There are ways of Boosting the Bioavailability of Curcumin to get it into our blood stream.

Some should be cautious about turmeric use, though. See Who Shouldn't Consume Curcumin or Turmeric?

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, From Table to Able, and Food as Medicine.

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Preventing and Treating Colon Cancer with Turmeric Curcumin

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The low incidence of bowel cancer in India is often attributed to natural antioxidants such as curcumin, the yellow pigment in the spice turmeric, used in curry powder. However, it is important to remember that the benefits of a diet are seldom produced by a single ingredient in that diet. For example, diets rich in beta-carotene lower the risk of tobacco-related cancers, but beta-carotene pills do not. That doesn't stop researchers from trying, though.

Back in 2001, in a last ditch attempt to save the lives of 15 patients with advanced colorectal cancer that didn't respond to any of the standard chemotherapy agents or radiation, researchers started them on a turmeric extract. The extract appeared to help stall the disease in a third (5 out of 15) of the patients, suggesting that turmeric extract may clinically benefit at least some patients with advanced refractory colorectal cancer.

If we were talking about some new kind of chemotherapy, and it only helped one in three, we'd have to weigh the benefits against chemo side effects, such as losing our hair, the sloughing of our guts, intractable vomiting, maybe being bed-ridden. Therefore, a drug scenario, a one in three benefit may not sound particularly appealing. But when we're talking about plant extract proven to be remarkably safe, it would be worth considering even if it just helped 1 in a 100. With no serious downsides, a one in three benefit for end-stage cancer is pretty exciting.

To see if colon cancer could be prevented, five years later, researchers at Cleveland Clinic and John Hopkins School of Medicine tested two phytochemicals, curcumin (from turmeric) and quercitin, (found in fruits and vegetables such as red onions and grapes) in people with familial adenomatous polyposis, an inherited form of colon cancer in which individuals develop hundreds of polyps that may become cancerous unless prophylactically removed. (See Turmeric Curcumin and Colon Cancer). Researchers gave supplements of curcumin and quercetin to five such patients who already had their colons removed, but still had either polyps in their rectum or in a little intestinal pouch. Each patient had between 5 and 45 polyps each, but after six months on the supplement they ended up with on average fewer than half the polyps, and the ones that were left had shrunk in half. One patient got rid of all polyps by month three, but then they seemed to come back. The researchers asked the patient what's what, and it turned out that the patient stopped taking the supplements. So researchers put the patient back on the phytonutrient supplements for another three months, and the polyps came back down with virtually no adverse events and no blood test abnormalities.

By studying people at high risk for colon cancer, the researchers were able to show noticeable effects within just months. But polyposis is a rare disease; they were only able to recruit five people for the study. Thankfully, smokers are a dime a dozen. After another five years, researchers put 44 smokers on turmeric curcumin supplements alone for a month and measured changes in their colorectal aberrant crypt foci, which may act like the precursors to polyps, which are the precursors to cancer. After just one month there was a significant drop in the number of these abnormal crypt foci in the high dose supplement group but no change in the low dose group. There were also no dose-limiting side effects (although the stools in the participants did turn yellow).

The low cancer rates in India may also be related to phytate consumption (Phytates for the Prevention of Cancer) and plant-centered diets (Back to Our Roots: Curry and Cancer).

More on turmeric and Cancer in Carcinogenic Blocking Effects of Turmeric and Turmeric Curcumin Reprogramming Cancer Cell Death.

Given the poor systemic absorption of turmeric compounds, what cancers other than that of the digestive tract may be directly affected? See my follow-up video Topical Application of Turmeric Curcumin for Cancer.

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, From Table to Able, and Food as Medicine.

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How Plants Can be Both Safer and More Effective

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During the last decade, the drug industry has followed an assumption that a single drug hitting a single target was the "rational" way to design drugs. We're learning that Mother Nature may be a bit too complicated for that. "Strategies for targeting single genes or proteins ignore a very important fact that most, if not all diseases, involve a sophisticated network system." For example, one little family of immune molecules involves about 50 different keys fitting into about 20 different locks, often acting with redundancy, making selection of an appropriate drug to antagonize one key or one lock ineffective in the long run. A whole list of agents has been developed to target a specific molecule for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, for example, but they have all flopped. That's why drug companies are now working on so-called "promiscuous" drugs that try to affect multiple pathways simultaneously.

Meanwhile, since ancient times, natural agents derived from plants--fruits, vegetables, spices, beans, and grains--have been preferred as potential therapeutics for most chronic diseases, not only because of their safety, affordability, and long-term use, but also "for their ability to target multiple cell signaling pathways, a therapeutic virtue." (See Magic Bullets vs. Promiscuous Plants).

One example of a successful promiscuous plant-based drug is aspirin. It doesn't just target inflammation and offer pain relief, but can act as a blood thinner and help prevent preeclampsia and even some types of cancer. Curcumin is another hopeful plant-based medicine. Aspirin is an extract of the willow tree bark (and is present in other fruits and vegetables); curcumin is an extract of turmeric root. It's so anti-inflammatory that it may even work through the skin--a traditional use was to wrap sprains and injuries with turmeric soaked poultices, a use that continues to this day. Curcumin is so anti-inflammatory that it can help counter the effects of mustard gas.

In a petri dish, curcumin extinguishes the response of spleen cells to an inflammatory cytokine. Promising effects have also been observed in patients with a variety of inflammatory diseases. One of the great things about curcumin is that it also appears to be very safe. One of the reasons may be that despite its powerful pharmacological effects, the same pathway promiscuity that may account for its effectiveness may act synergistically to neutralize side-effects. For example, turmeric has been traditionally used as a bronchodilator to open airways in conditions like asthma. Many of the adrenaline-like drugs that do the same thing can raise blood pressure. The reason turmeric doesn't may be because it has different components with opposing activities, such as calcium channel-blocking effects that may actually lower blood pressure, and so the side effects may cancel each other out.

This strength in promiscuity, though, is also a weakness. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has been reluctant to approve plant extracts, which by definition are composed of mixtures of different compounds. It's a Catch-22. One drug, one chemical, one mechanism of action and you can patent it, get FDA approval, and make a billion off it, but it may not work very well. On the other hand, there might be a safe, natural alternative that works better, but industry and the government may not be interested.

However, there is hope on the horizon. The FDA approved a green tea ointment as a prescription drug for the treatment of genital warts (See Treating Genital Warts with Green Tea), making it the first prescription plant approved in the United States. If you think that's neat, check out Treating Gorlin Syndrome With Green Tea.

So have drug companies abandoned their model and started pouring money into plants? No. "Having discovered that so-called magic bullet has been largely unsuccessful, they just propose creating non-selective drugs. Instead of magic bullets, magic shotguns."

I go into more detail about the Catch-22 in my last video Plants as Intellectual Property - Patently Wrong?

Aspirin isn't just found in willow tree bark, but throughout the plant kingdom, including fruits and vegetables. See: Aspirin Levels in Plant Foods.

My video Power Plants shows how plant foods are not to be underestimated.

More on turmeric curcumin and inflammation here:

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my videos for free by clicking here and watch my full 2012 - 2015 presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More than an Apple a Day, From Table to Able, and Food as Medicine.

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Plants as Intellectual Property: Patently Wrong?

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Since ancient times, Mother Nature has been a fertile source for drugs used to treat human diseases. One such remedy is the spice turmeric, specifically known for its naturally-yellow compound, curcumin, which has been used for at least 2,500 years. In light of the long and established experience with curcumin as a foodstuff and safe, low-cost, effective medicine, the spice is moving rapidly from the kitchen shelf toward the clinic.

Curcumin has shown some promising effects against a wide range of diseases, so well in fact that curcumin appears to possess all the desirable features of a designed-from-scratch, multipurpose drug.

If it's so safe and effective, why aren't more studies being done? Part of the delay is attributable to a U.S. patent, granted in 1995 to researchers at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, for curcumin's wound-healing properties, which prevented its development as a therapeutic. In a landmark case, highlighted in my video, Plants as Intellectual Property: Patently Wrong?, the Indian Council of Scientific and Industrial Research spent years arguing and finally proved that curcumin has been part of the Indian traditional system of medicine for centuries and so should be considered part of the public domain. It's like patenting broccoli. The patent was finally over-turned in 1997, a triumph for those trying to stop the misappropriation of traditional knowledge by multinational corporations. But if no one profits, who's going to pay for research?

Given that public knowledge does not involve any intellectual property, drug companies are not interested in its commercialization. You can buy turmeric in any grocery store for pennies a dose. "Unless there is intellectual property to make money, nobody will come forward," said a leading turmeric researcher.

Then how is any research being funded? Although curcumin itself is no longer patentable, derivatives, formulations, delivery systems, and synthetic methods can be. So, if you take some turmeric molecule and tweak it a little bit, you can patent it for your investors. Unless phytonutrients can be converted into new chemical entities for which more specific medical claims are possible, the development of these plants seems unlikely. Sure, they're extensively exploited as active ingredients of innumerable products on ill-regulated food supplement markets, but apart from this, progress through clinical trials remains sluggish. "Such waste of resources on the way of transformation from renewable materials to high tech/high value products ... is deplorable," drug research scientists write.

So maybe it would be good if Frito-lay did own the patent to broccoli. There's a reason we don't see Super Bowl ads for vegetables.

This reminds me of my video The Lie That Heals: Should Doctors Give Placebos? I went into the topic thinking one thing, but realized that there are strong arguments to be made on both sides.

Turmeric is pretty amazing stuff. Even if we won't hear about most of the research because companies can't patent it, we can educate ourselves:

The concept that the curcumin in turmeric is able to target multiple diseases pathways simultaneously is explored further in my video, Magic Bullets vs. Promiscuous Plants.

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my videos for free by clicking here and watch my full 2012 - 2015 presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More than an Apple a Day, From Table to Able, and Food as Medicine.

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Why Certain Plant Compounds May Mimic Dietary Restriction

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A new concept, called xenohormesis, has arisen to explain the mystery of why so many plant molecules interact with and modulate key regulators of our physiology in ways that are beneficial to our health (explained further in my video, Xenohormesis: What Doesn't Kill Plants May Make Us Stronger).

Basically, hormesis is the biological principle of "no pain, no gain." Mild stresses like exercise can trigger a protective response that leads to strengthened defenses in the long run. But instead of exposing ourselves to the stressor to trigger our bodies' defenses and shore up protection against future stressors, why not let plants take the hit? Let the plants get stressed because, incredibly, the stress response molecules in plants may activate the same protective responses in humans. Xenohormesis "explains how environmentally stressed plants produce bioactive compounds that can confer stress resistance and survival benefits to animals that consume them." We can piggyback off of their sophisticated stress response. Indeed, the majority of known health-beneficial effects of edible plants are attributable to the pharmacologically active substances of plants' stress responses.

Hormesis may be why dietary restriction can lead to lifespan extension. The mild stress placed upon the body by not eating enough may activate a wide variety of protective pathways within the body, ramping up anti-inflammatory and antioxidant defenses. Our bodies are preparing themselves for the coming famine they think is about to occur. So is there a way to exploit the benefits of dietary restriction to prevent chronic disease? Obviously, "chronically restricting food intake is not a realistic health strategy for the majority of people--it's hard for most people to even cut food intake 10-20%, [given the powerful evolutionary drive to eat]. A more feasible alternative may be to activate dietary restriction-induced stress response pathways by other means."

In other words, xenohormesis.

If we starve plants, they do the same thing mammals do: activate preservation pathways. So let's let the plant face the adversity to create the molecules that trigger cell stress resistance, alter metabolism, and improve disease resistance, and then just come along and appropriate them for the same uses in our own bodies.

The reason phytonutrients like resveratrol in grapes, curcumin in the spice turmeric, and ECGC in green tea are called "dietary restriction mimetics" is that they mimic the physiological effects of dietary restriction. This may be no coincidence, because the plants produced these compounds to save their own green butts from scarcity. So instead of having to walk around starving all the time, thanks to xenohormesis, we may be able to let the plants bear the brunt and enable us to harness other species' hardships as a means to promote our own health.

If this subject interests you, make sure you see my video where I introduce the topic: Appropriating Plant Defenses.

I previously introduced the concept of hormesis in my videos Enhanced Athletic Recovery Without Undermining Adaptation and Is Liquid Smoke Carcinogenic?

How else might we get the benefits of dietary restriction without starving ourselves? See:

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my videos for free by clicking here and watch my full 2012 - 2015 presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More than an Apple a Day, From Table to Able, and Food as Medicine.

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How Curry Can Kill Cancer Cells

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It is estimated that the human body consists of ten or so trillion cells. Almost all of these cells get turned over within approximately 100 days. That means we're like a new person every three months. We reinvent ourselves physically. And since we're physically made of air, water, and food--those are essentially the only inputs--we are what we eat, literally and physically. In a sense our body has to rebuild itself every three months with the building materials we deliver to it through our stomach. Our mouths are like the access road to the continual construction site of our body. Trucks roll in three times a day. What do we want them to deliver? Some shoddy cheap stuff we scrounged around for or bought at the discount outlets that's just going to fall apart? Or do we want to build our foundation solid? We are each walking inside the greatest known architectural structures in the universe. Let's not ruin such grand blueprints by consuming junk.

We only own the biological real estate we're born with, so if we need to rebuild every three months, we also need a wrecking crew. If we're replacing ten trillion cells every hundred days, that means we have to kill off about 100 billion cells every day. Out with the old, in with the new. We do that primarily through "apoptosis," pre-programmed cell death (from the Greek ptosis, meaning "falling", and apo, "away from"). For example, we all used to have webbed fingers and toes. Literally. Each one of us did in the womb until about four months, when apoptosis kicked in, and the cells in the webbing kill themselves off to separate our fingers.

However, some cells overstay their welcome: cancer cells. They don't die when they're supposed to by somehow turning off their suicide genes. What can we do about that? Well, one of the ways the yellow pigment in curry powder kills cancer cells is by reprogramming the self-destruct mechanism back into cancer cells. Let me just run through one of these pathways.

FAS is a so-called death receptor that activates the FAS associated death domain, death receptor five, and death receptor four. The FADD associated death domain then activates caspase-8, which "ignites the death machine," and kills the cell. (To see the diagram of the pathway, go to my video Turmeric Curcumin Reprogramming Cancer Cell Death). Where does curry powder fit into all this? In cancer cells, curcumin, the pigment in the spice turmeric that makes curry powder yellow, upregulates and activates death receptors (as shown in human kidney cancer cells, skin cancer cells, and nose and throat cancer cells).

Curcumin can also activate the death machine directly (as shown in lung cancer and colon cancer). Caspases are so-called "executioner enzymes," that when activated, destroy the cancer cell from within by chopping up proteins left and right--kind of like death by a thousand cuts.

And that's just one pathway. Curcumin can also affect apoptosis in a myriad other ways, affecting a multitude of different types of cancer cells. It also tends to leave normal cells alone for reasons that are not fully understood. Overall, researchers "showed that curcumin can kill a wide variety of tumor cell types through diverse mechanisms. And because curcumin can affect numerous mechanisms of cell death at the same time, it's possible that cancer cells may not easily develop resistance to curcumin-induced cell death like they do to most chemotherapy."

For more on turmeric and cancer, check out Back to Our Roots: Curry and Cancer and Carcinogen Blocking Effects of Turmeric.

Other herbs and spices such as garlic and amla have similar selective effects against cancer cell (See #1 Anticancer Vegetable and Some Ayurvedic Medicine Worse than Lead Paint Exposure).

I talk more about this concept of "apoptosis," programmed cell death in:

What else can turmeric do? Here's the videos I have so far (with more on the way!):

-Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven't yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live year-in-review presentations Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death, More Than an Apple a Day, and From Table to Able.

Image Credit: Steven Jackson / Flickr

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